Though African Americans have fallen behind Hispanics as the largest minority group in the United States, they still make up a growing market with a vibrant media sector. The Census Bureau estimates there are 39.9 million non-Hispanic blacks in the United States, 12.9% of the total population. The population is expected to grow 42.7% by 2050, to 56.9 million.1
The median household income level of African Americans, though, often an indicator of advertiser appeal, trails all other ethnic groups measured: $35,425, compared to $41,470 for Hispanics, $56,826 for whites, $70,069 for Asians and $52,029 for the total population.2
In a difficult year, advertising revenue for African American media declined 9.6%, to $1.8 billion, in the 12 months ending June 2009, according to estimates by the Nielsen Company. In comparison, Spanish-language media fell 6.3% in the same period.3
The impact varied by sector, with national magazines and syndicated television faring the worst. Several magazines faced rumors of sale. In television, two of the three largest stations had substantial increases in ad revenues as well as audience growth.
To learn more about the companies that own African American media, go to Who Owns the News Media.
Few African American newspapers release financial data. Most analysts and industry insiders estimate that this sector lost revenue for the year, but not to the extent of most other media.4
As Neil Foote, a senior lecturer at the University of North Texas Mayborn School of Journalism, explained it, “Black newspapers have been able to sustain themselves due to local advertising… Black media are pretty effective at soliciting ad dollars from… businesses that primarily serve an African American clientele.”5
But even with income from government-related public notices, the decline of automotive and financial services advertising could have a lasting effect on many black publications, Foote said. Publishers will have to find alternative revenue streams.
In 2009, the black press was boosted by the inauguration of President Obama and the death of Michael Jackson, which resulted in high demand for souvenir copies.
“Black media will have to develop more creative ways for marketers to reach the African-American audience, and will have to invest in digital media strategies on the Internet and cellphones to provide methods for advertisers to invest,” Foote said.
Circulation of Top African American Newspapers
|Design Your Own Chart|
Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations Publisher’s Statements for the six-month periods ending September 30.
The Philadelphia Tribune circulates on Sundays, Tuesdays and Fridays. The Afro-American has editions in Baltimore and Washington. This chart combines the three days of the Philadelphia Tribune and both editions of the Afro-American
One major newspaper saw a big year-over-year increase in circulation. The New York Amsterdam News, a weekly founded in 1909, reported an average circulation of 17,477 for the six-months ending September 2009, an increase of 46% from the same period the year before.7
Editor Elinor Tatum attributed the increase to both Barack Obama’s inauguration and Michael Jackson’s death. “The November election and the inauguration were both large.
A lot of [the readers] were new… and in general it was people looking for the African American outlook on what was going on in America,” Tatum said.
Tatum predicted that the newspaper’s circulation would stabilize in 2010 but said she hopes to see the upward trend continue. Still, the Amsterdam News had trouble attracting advertising revenue. “[In] advertising, everyone is having trouble,” Tatum said. “We’re taking it day by day, trying to bring in new readers and new advertisers.”8
Other newspapers did not have as much success in 2009. The Philadelphia Tribune, founded in 1884, calls itself the country’s oldest newspaper serving African Americans. It is published three times a week and showed a decline in circulation in 2009.
The Philadelphia Tribune, which publishes on Tuesdays, Fridays and Sundays, reported a 5% decrease on Tuesdays for the six months ending September 2009 when compared with the same period the year before. The paper’s Friday circulation declined even more significantly, 19%, over the same period.9
Circulation for the Sunday edition, introduced in May 2008, declined 23% for the six-month period ending September 2009, to 8,406. That followed a year-over-year gain of 8.6%, to 9,857 in the twelve-months ending March 2009, a period that included both the election and inauguration of Obama.10
Another major newspaper, the Afro-American, which calls itself the oldest family-owned black paper in the country, publishes weekly editions in the majority-black cities of Washington and Baltimore.
The Washington edition of the paper suffered a considerable 21% drop in circulation in the six months ending September 2009, falling to 6,592 from 8,374 for the same period in 2008.11
The Baltimore Afro-American saw more stable numbers in 2009 than its sister newspaper. In September 2009, the Baltimore edition reported its six-month average circulation at 7,244, not significantly lower from the circulation of 7,303 the year before.12
The newspaper’s publisher, Jake Oliver, told PEJ that the Afro was having success selling the Baltimore edition in bulk to churches, fraternities and retirement homes.13
The Afro also sends bulk copies of its papers to service members in Iraq, sponsored by churches and other groups. The Afro had plans to expand delivery to Afghanistan as well, said Oliver, who also hopes to start sending an electronic version of the paper to soldiers.
And the inauguration of President Obama sold hundreds of copies of the paper. The Afro also sold a glossy commemorative publication for $5 called “Victory” that included the newspaper’s coverage throughout the election. There was a decline in circulation in the months after the inauguration.
There was a much steeper decline in advertising income in both editions. “It’s tough,” said Oliver. “National and local advertising has grinded — though not completely — to a halt. Very rarely have I seen it consistently this bad… We’re not about to go out of business, but it’s a strain.”14
Both editions advanced their shared Web presence in 2009 to broaden readership and began sharing content with other ethnic media to control expenses.
One of their biggest drivers to their Web site for the year was an article about the tea party protests in Washington in September 2009. The article focused on how the vast majority of the protesters were to –the right politically and predominantly white.15 Web traffic surged and within 24 hours readers posted over 150 online comments.16
Oliver said that the website had an average of 42,000 monthly unique visitors in 2009, and he predicted more future growth on the digital side of his business than the print side.
The Afro also began sharing videos on Facebook, started a Twitter news feed in January 2009, and plans a site redesign in 2010 to increase its video capabilities.
Beyond the Web, the Afro branched out to work with newspapers of other ethnicities. In 2009, the paper joined with several other black newspapers as well as the impreMedia chain of Spanish-language papers to run the same editorial on the importance of health legislation to minorities. “You can attract more attention by working together,” Oliver said.
“Like anything else,” he said, “a lot of the existing methods and habits need to radically change because our market is changing. It requires us to become far more innovative.”17
Other major African American weekly newspapers include:
- The Washington Informer, founded in October 1964. For 2009, it reported distributing a weekly average of 19,000 newspapers to distribution boxes and 750 more to subscribers throughout the Washington region.18 The Informer is unique in that it does not cover crime news. The focus, according to the website, is on community solutions to improve the quality of life for all Washington area residents.”19
- The St. Louis American, founded in 1928. The free newspaper distributes 70,000 copies each Thursday, making it the second largest weekly newspaper in Missouri, according to its website. The newspaper also has an interactive website with videos and social networking.20
- The Los Angeles Sentinel, established in 1933, is published on Thursdays and says it is the largest subscriber paid African American-owned newspaper in the West. At one time the paper was audited, but by December 2009, it had canceled the service.
- The Chicago Defender, founded in 1905, switched from daily to weekly in February 2008. The Defender is owned by Real Times Media, which owns several African American newspapers.21 At one time, the Chicago Defender was audited, but by December 2009, it was no longer being audited. In December 2009, the Defender began to distribute a monthly tabloid about black business produced by Target Market News. The publication also has a companion website, BlackBusinessChicago.com.22
A self-described radical newspaper, The San Francisco Bay View, stopped printing in 2008, but reinvented itself by year’s end.
The newspaper stopped printing its weekly edition in July 2008 and began to print monthly in November 2008. The paper’s editor, Mary Ratcliff, said the new monthly paper had an average monthly circulation of 20,000 in 2009.23 She cites its website’s average monthly page views at about 50,000.
There are some signs of hope: The new monthly edition is clearing “a little profit with every paper,” said Radcliff, who added, “We’re doing better on advertising than when we were weekly.”24
Radcliff said she hoped the paper would revert to publishing on a weekly basis by mid-2010. The paper established a nonprofit arm to apply for grant money and is attempting to rebuild its staff.25
African American magazines faced economic challenges coupled with decreasing readership in 2009 despite a study that found that 60% of blacks regularly read black magazines.26
Owners of some of the biggest magazines were contemplating selling at the end of the year, and one folded its print publication in December.
Ad revenue dropped significantly for national African American magazines from July 2008 to June 2009. For the 12 months ending June 2009, ad revenue for national African American magazines fell 21.8% to $452 million, from $578.2 million the year before.27
Two venerable magazines, Ebony and Jet, both owned by the Johnson Publishing Company, experienced declines in circulation and were the subject of sale rumors in 2009.
Average Monthly Circulation of Top African American Magazines
|Design Your Own Chart|
Source: Audit Bureau of Circulations publisher’s statements for the six-month period ending June 30.
Jet, a weekly news magazine, reported an average circulation of 868,983 for the six months ending in June 2009, a decline of 6.5% from 929,599 the same period the year before.28 The average number of ad pages in the third quarter of 2009 was 125.29, a decrease of 34.5% from the same period the year before.29
In February 2010, Jet introduced a redesigned layout and logo in an effort to appeal to a broader audience.30
Ebony, a monthly lifestyle magazine, reported an average circulation of 1.3 million for the six months ending June 2009, a 10% decrease from the year before.31 Ebony’s average number of ad pages in the third quarter of 2009 was 114.38, a 51.6% decline from 236.41 the same period the year before.32 That came on top of two previous years of ad page declines.
To save money, Johnson Publishing canceled its traveling Ebony Fashion Fair in fall 2009 after a more than 50-year –run.33
And in fall 2009, rumors of a sale of the two magazines emerged. At least two African American-led investment groups expressed interest, emphasizing that they would preserve Ebony and Jet as black-owned businesses.34
One set of interested buyers was reported to be a group of journalists, including a former president of the National Association of Black Journalists, Sidmel Estes-Sumpter; Professor Neil Foote of the University of North Texas and a former broadcast news manager, Willie Chriesman.35 In February 2010, Foote reported there was “no movement” with the group’s interest in Johnson Publishing.36
Another group of interested buyers was headed by Connecticut businessmen and brothers Kenton and Peter Clarke. Kenton Clarke is the CEO of DiversityBusiness.com, a multicultural IT consulting firm.37
The retired NBA star Magic Johnson was reportedly in talks to purchase Johnson Publishing in February 2010. If the former basketball star bought the publisher, the magazines would be folded into his company, Magic Johnson Enterprises.38
Johnson Publishing declined to comment on the matter and as of February 2010 neither magazine had been sold.
Another large African American magazine, Essence, a monthly women’s lifestyle publication owned by Time Inc., had an increase in circulation of almost 4%. For the six months ending June 2009, the magazine reported an average circulation of 1.09 million, up from 1.05 million the year before.39
Average ad pages for the magazine dropped to 284.74 in the third quarter of 2009, or 3% fewer than same period in 2008.40
Michelle Ebanks, president of Essence Communications, cited her readers’ loyalty to the magazine, saying that it had the ability to draw in marketers, “when 37% of your target demographic reads you three out of four issues, that’s a wonderful position to be in.”41
Nevertheless, after Essence relaunched its website in 2009, according to Journalisticks, an online community for journalists of color, the magazine eliminated virtually its entire Web staff of 12 to 15 people, as part of massive cuts at Time Inc. A Time spokeswoman did not respond to requests for comment.42
Giant Magazine, published by Radio One, suspended the print edition of the entertainment and lifestyle bimonthly in December 2009, making it an online-only publication.
“The economic downturn has had a tremendous impact on print media,” said Radio One Interactive’s president, Tom Newman. “We had to make the decision to suspend printing the publication.”43
Giant Magazine last reported an average circulation of 317,015 for the six months ending June 2009, a decrease of 12% from 362,090 the year before.44
One magazine that showed stability in 2009 was Black Enterprise, the monthly business magazine, founded in 1970 and published by Earl G. Graves. It reported a circulation of 527,655 for the six months ending in March 2009, slightly less than 530,655 for the same period a year before.45
The magazine also has two weekly nationally syndicated television series. Our World With Black Enterprise, which debuted in September 2006, includes interviews with newsmakers as well as roundtable discussions on black business. The other, Black Enterprise Business Report, was launched in November 2003. The weekly program focuses on financial issues of interest to African Americans and presents profiles African American executives.46
Black-oriented cable television is available in a large number of American households and its ad revenue grew in 2009.
For the most part, news is a small portion of programming on black cable television, except for special event coverage. Most of the programming on African American cable consists of music, lifestyle and entertainment.
For the 12 months ending June 2009, African American cable television showed a 6.7% growth in advertising revenue to $529 million from $495.7 million for the same period the year before.47
The inauguration of President Obama gave African American cable channels that do not normally have a news focus the chance to provide more news-like coverage.
BET, the largest cable channel providing African American programming was founded in 1980. The station, owned by Viacom, was available in an estimated 90 million households in 2009, up slightly from 88.7 million in 2008, according to SNL Kagan, a leading financial research firm.48
In ratings, BET had its best ever year in 2009. It averaged 512,000 viewers per month for the year. That is a gain of 17% over 2008.49 It also gained the highest year-over-year total viewership gains among all other top 20 ad-supported entertainment cable networks, with an increase of 37%, based on data from Nielsen.50
Even with increased viewership, revenue and profits fell in 2009. Advertising revenue, according to SNL Kagan, was projected to drop almost 10% to $245.9 million in 2009, down from $272.5 million in 2008. Pretax profits of BET were forecast to decrease 11.6% to $193.2 million in 2009, down from $218.5 million in 2008.51
BET Pretax Profits
|Design Your Own Chart|
Source: SNL Kagan, a division of SNL Financial LLC
Numbers are estimates.
The company also owns BET Gospel, BET Hip-Hop and Centric. Centric, formally BET J, changed its format in September 2009. Previously a jazz station, Centric now airs programming geared toward “African-American and multicultural adults in the 25-54 year-old demographic.”52
Another cable television channel, TV One, targets African American adults with original and rerun lifestyle programming. Established in 2004, the channel’s potential audience has grown to an estimated 51.7 million subscribers in 2009.
The channel is also expected to enjoy its first profitable year in 2009, according to SNL Kagan. The firm estimates $1.3 million in profit, up from a loss of $11.1 million in 2008.53
TV One Pretax Profits
|Design Your Own Chart|
Source: SNL Kagan, a division of SNL Financial LLC
Numbers are estimates.
Much of that profit comes from a strong increase in advertising, projected to rise almost 6% in 2009 to $44.5 million from $42 million in 2008.54
The channel is a venture of Radio One, Comcast and DIRECTV. TV One CEO Johnathan Rodgers said that he did not expect that Comcast’s purchase of a majority share of NBC Universal would affect TV One. “It’s a great move for Comcast, but we don’t expect it to have any material impact on TV One, which is a separate company whose managing partner is Radio One,” Rodgers told the online column Journal-isms.55
The Africa Channel has a slightly different focus than BET and TV One. The channel was launched in September 2005 as a showcase for English-language content from Africa, including newsmagazines, business analysis and talk shows. The Africa Channel could reach an estimated 11.6 million people in 2009, according to SNL Kagan, up 50.6% from 7.7 million in 2008.
The channel is still in the red but doing better, according to estimates. Its expected loss of $11.7 million in 2009 is 19% better than its loss in 2008 ($14.5 million). Even more promising, its net ad revenue in 2009 was projected to rise 45% over 2008 to $2.9 million (from $2 million).56
Africa Channel Total Net Loss
|Design Your Own Chart|
Source: SNL Kagan, a division of SNL Financial LLC
Numbers are estimates.
Plans to launch new black-owned television networks in 2009 were all delayed until 2010.
- Former Congressman J. C. Watts had planned to launch The Black Television News Channel in 2009. But late in the year, Watts pushed it back to sometime in 2010. The focus of the network will be news programming with “a distinctly African-American perspective.” In late 2009, it hired the Carol H. Williams Advertising agency to take on its marketing.57
- Better Black Television is a project of Percy Miller (the rapper Master P), who wants it to be “the family-friendly network” The station also revised its launch to 2010. While the website already exists, in December 2009 its “Late Breaking News” section led with an April 14 article about the first 100 days of the Obama administration The station does have a few television shows lined up, including a Percy Miller sitcom.58
- Urban Broadcast Universal Television (UBU TV), another black-owned start-up network, has a planned launch for the second quarter of 2010. The network aims to be a “positive, progressive, urban, multicultural TV network.” Its CEO, Walter Morgan, also the co-founder and president of defunct Urban American Television, wants the network to fill the role of a major television network with majority African American ownership, airing positive images about African Americans and other ethnic cultures.59
A majority of blacks, 62%, say they regularly listen to black news or talk shows on the radio, but the size of African American radio in the United States is hard to pin down.60 Arbitron Radio Ratings and Media Research, the radio ratings service, can identify the demographics of different radio formats. Yet many stations have sizable African American audiences that are not explicitly targeted at that group. At the same time, Arbitron’s count does not include some formats that are likely to have a sizable African American component, such as gospel and Southern gospel stations.
If one includes those formats whose audiences are mostly black, urban contemporary and urban adult contemporary, there were 564 stations on the list in 2008. A larger universe, those stations with formats whose audiences are at least one third African American, come to just under 1,000. Add those formats that were not included in Arbitron’s survey and the number rises further, to more than 1,500.61
Whatever the universe, the business had a hard time in 2009.
Ad revenue for African American radio as defined by a different company, Nielsen Media Research, fell by 6.7% for the 12 months ending June 2009, to $794.1 million.62
The biggest African American radio company is Radio One, which reached 14.5 million listeners in 2009, covering 16 urban markets.63 In October 2009, the company reported its second consecutive profitable quarter: a $14.5 million profit in the third quarter, compared with a loss of $325 million the same quarter a year earlier. But the company still had a net loss for the year-to-date of $26.9 million.64
Facing decreased ad revenue, most notably from the automotive (down 37.6%) and financial sectors (down 22.9%), the company reduced operating expenses.65
One of the most popular personalities affiliated with Radio One is Tom Joyner, the host of the Tom Joyner Morning Show, the syndicated radio program. He is also the founder of REACH Media, a marketing and media company established in 2003 that is majority-owned by Radio One. REACH Media owns BlackAmericaWeb.com (discussed further in Digital).66
Syndication One is a joint venture between Radio One and REACH Media. The company syndicates programs with personalities targeting the African American community, including the Yolanda Adams Morning Show, the Rickey Smiley Show, Bishop T. D. Jakes’ “Empowering Moments,” the Rev. Al Sharpton Show, the Warren Ballentine Show and Coco Brother Live.
Another popular radio personality is Joe Madison, who has a talk show aired nationally on satellite radio as well as locally in Washington. Madison, who is known as The Black Eagle, discusses issues important to the African American community.67
Of the U.S. radio stations owned by minorities, African Americans account for a major part, though most of the stations do not target African American listeners. Out of 815 minority-owned radio stations, 135 stations targeted urban or African American audiences in 2009. Six of those were urban news/talk, addressing issues specific to African American communities.68
American Urban Radio Network says it is the only African-American network owned by an African American. With a mix of music, religion and news, the network says it has more than 20 million listeners each week.69
In October 2009, one of American Urban Radio Network’s journalists, Brian Cook, won the award for network radio short form news reports from the National Association of Black Journalists for his story on the deaths of Bernie Mac and Isaac Hayes.70
Black-oriented media continue to search for their niche online. About 70% of non-Hispanic blacks use the Internet, compared to 64% of Hispanics and 76% of non-Hispanic whites, according to a September 2009 survey by the Pew Internet & American Life Project.71 According to Pew, only 30% of African Americans reported that they regularly read a black website or blog.72
In September 2009, NBC Universal launched TheGrio.com, a news website that calls itself the “first video-centric news community site” geared toward African Americans. The site was founded by the documentarian David Wilson and NBC News and is named after West African storytellers called “griot.” In addition to its own staff, commentators on the site include writers from other publications and websites as well as the Rev. Al Sharpton. The site also provides footage from historical events in black history.73
BlackAmericaWeb.com was launched in 2001 as a “broad-based effort to become a timely and credible source for news and information covering all aspects of daily life, featuring a wide array of viewpoints and perspectives.” Started by radio host Tom Joyner, the site provides visitors with news aggregated from other sources as well as stories produced by its own writers.
The site says that Joyner sees BlackAmericaWeb.com as “a vehicle to leverage his tremendous popularity and to create a one-stop source that will bring African-Americans together.”74 The site is a portal for news and information, and it is also a gateway to everything “Tom Joyner,” including a stream to his nationally syndicated radio show, his special events throughout the year and his foundation, which helps students stay in historically black colleges.
Interactive One, Radio One’s online venture launched in 2007, provides news, information and entertainment to an African American audience and claims more than 9 million monthly users among its various websites.75 Its sites include:
- NewsOne provides news coverage of events that impact African Americans. In November 2009, the site attracted 133,000 unique visitors.
- TheUrbanDaily covers music, movie, television and lifestyle trends. In November 2009, the site had 95,000 unique visitors.
- HelloBeautiful, a website geared toward African American women, had 127,000 unique visitors in November 2009.
- Elev8 calls itself a website for “black spirituality, black empowerment, advice, tips and gospel music.” In November 2009, it had 35,000 unique visitors.76
- GIANTmag will become GIANTlife.com in 2010, as discussed in magazines (link here to magazines). Audience figures were unavailable.77
Radio One bought BlackPlanet in April 2008, a social network for African Americans founded in 1999 that claimed more than 15 million members.78 In a $38 million deal, Radio One also acquired MiGente and AsianAve, Hispanic and Asian social networking communities.79
Another popular African American website is TheRoot.com, owned by Washington Post/Newsweek Interactive. In November 2009, the site attracted 341,000 unique visitors, compared to a high of 1.5 million in November 2008, the month of Barack Obama’s election.80
The Root calls itself a daily online magazine that provides commentary on the day’s news “from a variety of black perspectives.”81 The website was founded by its editor-in-chief, Henry Louis Gates Jr., the writer and Harvard professor.
In August 2009, the black blogging community came together to respond to controversial statements made by Fox News’ Glenn Beck about President Obama. On August 4, 2009, Beck, on Fox & Friends, referred to Obama as a “racist” with “a deep-seated hatred for white people or the white culture.” Black bloggers, under the coalition name Color of Change, voiced their concern, calling for a boycott of Fox News and pressuring companies to take their advertisements off of his program. Several companies pulled their ads from the show, including ConAgra, Geico, Procter & Gamble and Progressive Insurance, but those ads were “redistributed to other programming on the network, so there has been no revenue lost” a Fox News spokesperson told Broadcasting & Cable magazine.82 (Read more in Cable.)
1. U.S. Census Bureau, National Population Projections, released 2009 (based on Census 2000).
2. U.S. Census Bureau, Median Household Income.
3. Laurel Wentz, “Ad Spending in Spanish-Language Media Falls by 6.3%, Nielsen Says,” Advertising Age, October 29, 2009.
4. Nielsen does not provide data for African American newspapers.
5. Neil Foote, interview with PEJ, December 18. 2009.
6. “A Year After Obama’s Election: Blacks Upbeat about Black Progress, Prospects.” Pew Research Center. January 12, 2010.
7. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Publisher’s Statement, New York Amsterdam News.
8. Elinor Tatum, interview with PEJ, December 15, 2009.
9. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Philadelphia Tribune, the Sunday Tribune.
11. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Washington Afro-American.
12. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Baltimore Afro-American.
13. John J. Oliver, interview with PEJ, December 18, 2009.
14. John J. Oliver, interview with PEJ, December 9, 2009.
15. Talibah Chikwendu, “Tea Party Marches Far Right & White.” the Afro, September 17, 2009.
16. John J. Oliver. Interview with PEJ. December 9, 2009.
17. John J. Oliver. Interview with PEJ. December 9, 2009.
18. No comparative data from year-to-year were available.
22. Mark Fitzgerald, “Black Business Monthly to Distribute Through ‘Chicago Defender,’ ” Editor & Publisher, December 9, 2009.
23. Radcliff said the paper stopped paying for audits in 2005.
24. Mary Ratcliff, interview with PEJ, December 17, 2009.
25. Mary Ratcliff, interview with PEJ, December 17, 2009.
26. “A Year After Obama’s Election: Blacks Upbeat about Black Progress, Prospects,” Pew Research Center, January 12, 2010.
27. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising,” October 2009.
28. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid, Verified & Analyzed Non-Paid Magazine Publisher’s Statement. Jet.
29. Publishers Information Bureau, “PIB Ad Revenue and Pages,” October 9, 2009.
30. Sandra Guy, “Jet Redesigns to Get More Readers On Board,” Chicago Sun Times, February 3, 2010.
31. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid, Verified & Analyzed Non-Paid Magazine Publisher’s Statement, Ebony.
32. Publishers Information Bureau, “PIB Ad Revenue and Pages,” October 9, 2009.
33. Richard Prince, “Ebony Puts Its Fashion Fair on Hold,” Journal-isms, September 8, 2009.
34. Denise Stewart, “Two Black Groups Looking to Buy Ebony,” BlackAmericaWeb.com, October 12, 2009.
35. Denise Stewart, “Two Black Groups Looking to Buy Ebony,” BlackAmericaWeb.com, October 12, 2009.
36. E-mail from Neil Foote, February 16, 2010.
37. Denise Stewart, “Two Black Groups Looking to Buy Ebony,” BlackAmericaWeb.com, October 12, 2009.
38. Brett Pulley, “Magic Johnson in Talks to Buy Publisher of Ebony, Jet Magazines,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, February 13, 2010.
39. Audit Bureau of Circulations. Paid & Verified Magazine Publisher’s Statement. Essence. (The magazine’s newest audited numbers, for the year 2008 cited Essence’s circulation at 1.07 million.)
40. Publishers Information Bureau, “PIB Ad Revenue and Pages,” October 9, 2009.
41. Larry Dobrow, “Essence Is No. 6 on Ad Age’s Magazine A-List,” Advertising Age, October 19, 2009.
42. “Essence Lays Off Digital Team,” Journalisticks, November 4, 2009.
43. Richard Prince, “Giant Magazine to Fold as Print Publication,” Journal-isms, November 30, 2009.
44. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid & Verified Publisher’s Statement, Giant.
45. Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid & Verified Publisher’s Statement, Black Enterprise.
46. 2010 Media kit, Black Enterprise.
48. SNL Kagan, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks,” August 2009.
49. BET News Release, “BET Celebrates Banner Ratings in 2009, December 30, 2009.
50. Bill Gorman, “BET Posts +37% Total Viewership Increases in July 2009,” TV by the Numbers, July 30, 2009.
51. SNL Kagan, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks,” August 2009.
52. “BET J Relaunches as Centric Today.” Channel Guide Magazine. September 28, 2009.
53. SNL Kagan. “Economics of Basic Cable Networks.” August 2009.
54. SNL Kagan, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks,” August 2009.
55. Richard Prince, “Comcast-NBC Merger Not Expected to Affect TV One,” Journal-isms, November 16, 2009.
56. SNL Kagan, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks,” August 2009.
59. UBU TV’s Website
60. “A Year After Obama’s Election: Blacks Upbeat About Black Progress, Prospects,” Pew Research Center, January 12, 2010.
61. Data from Arbitron Radio Today 2009 Edition. Combined number of Urban AC, Urban Contemporary, Religious, Gospel, NAC/Smooth Jazz, Jazz and Southern Gospel stations. These were either included in Arbitron’s Black Radio Today or had black listening compositions above 20%.
62. “Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising,” October 2009.
63. BIA/Kelsey Group, PEJ Research.
64. SEC Filing, September 30, 2009.
65. Thomas Heath, “Radio One Continues Rebound With Profitable Quarter,” The Washington Post. October 30, 2009.
68. The Maynard Institute, “Minority Radio Ownership at a Standstill,” November 2, 2009.
70. “ARUN is proud to announce Brian Cook won the Salute to Excellence Award at the National Association of Black Journalists,” press release, October 9, 2009.
71. “Demographics of Internet Usage.” Pew Internet & American Life Project, October 30, 2009.
72. “A Year After Obama’s Election: Blacks Upbeat About Black Progress, Prospects,” Pew Research Center, January 12, 2010.
73. Julia Mayes, “Positively Black: NBC Launches The Grio,” NBCNewYork.com, September 18, 2009.
76. Nielsen online data.
79. Jeff Clabaugh, “Radio One Buys Social Networking Company for $38M,” Baltimore Business Journal.
80. Nielsen online data.
81. The Root Website
82. Marisa Guthrie, “More Advertisers Pull Ads From Glenn Beck’s Fox News Show,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 13, 2009.