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Source Bibliography

About The Study
By the Project For Excellence In Journalism
Source Bibliography

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ABC News Content Now Available on Hulu,” ABC News’ Press Room, February 4, 2010.

ABC News Now, the news division’s digital cable network, is available on a small number of cable systems in the U.S.

Accenture, “This time, it’s personal: Engaging and interacting with consumers is the content industry’s new battleground.”

David Adams, “César Conde: Univision’s Big Bet,” Poder, September 2009.

Paige Albiniak, “Stations Call March Sweeps ‘Useless,’ ” Broadcasting and Cable, March 2, 2009.

Page Albiniak, “Station Layoffs Continue Apace,” Broadcasting & Cable, July 1, 2009.

Al Jazeera English launches new blog site,” Judith Townend,, October 12, 2009

Al Jazeera English online. Retrieved on October 27, 2009.

Jill Ambroz, “The Plight of the Postal Service;Most publishers are looking at a 3.8 percent increase this spring,”, April 29, 2009.

American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates, Sex by Educational Attainment for the Population 25 Years and Over, 2008.

American Urban Radio Networks Website

Nellie Andreeva, “400 jobs cuts at Disney-ABC TV,” Hollywood Reporter, January 29, 2009.

Arab American Institute, Arab American Demographics.

Arab American Journalists Criticize Mainstream American Media for Selective Coverage,” Arab American Journalism Association Press Release, April 21, 2008.

Tim Arango, “Cable TV’s Big Worry: Taming the Web,” New York Times, June 23, 2009.

Tim Arango, “New Owner for a Magazine as Political Tastes Change,” New York Times, August 2, 2009.

Tim Arango and Richard Pérez-Peña, “Murdoch’s Soft Spot for Print Slows News Corp.,” New York Times, February 23, 2009.

Arbitron Radar, December 7, 2009

Arbitron, “Radio Today: How Americans Listen to Radio,” 2009 Edition, September 23, 2009.

Chris Ariens, “Job Cuts Coming to ABC’s London Bureau,” TVNewser, May 7, 2009.

Chris Ariens, “MSNBC Dayside Changes: Return to Single-Anchor Shows; Themed Hours Go Away,” TVNewser, January 26, 2010.

ARUN is proud to announce Brian Cook won the Salute to Excellence Award at the National Association of Black Journalists,” press release, October 9, 2009.

“Asian/Pacific American Heritage Month: May 2009,” U.S. Census Bureau, March 3, 2009.

The Associated Press and impreMedia Team Up To Deliver impreMedia’s Industry-Leading Hispanic News Content over Mobile Devices via AP Mobile,” impreMedia Press Release, December 1, 2009.

Claire Atkinson, “Ad Execs Wonder How NBC Will Fill Looming 10 P.M. Hole,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 12, 2010.

Claire Atkinson, “A Comcast-Backed Telemundo Could Grow Hispanic TV Marketplace,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 19, 2009.

Claire Atkinson, “Media Trigger Fingers Get Itchy,” Broadcasting & Cable, September 14, 2009.
Mark Fratrik, e-mail communication with PEJ, November 16, 2009.

Claire Atkinson, “Univision to Launch Hispanic Ad Network,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 30, 2009.

Claire Atkinson, “Viewers, Advertisers Are Finding HLN,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 19, 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations audit report for the period ending December 31.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Audit Report and Publisher’s Statement, the Philadelphia Tribune, the Sunday Tribune.

Audit Bureau of Circulations. The Dallas Morning News. Publisher’s Statement.

Audit Bureau of Circulations.  El Diario/La Prensa. Newspaper Publisher’s Statement.

Audit Bureau of Circulations. El Nuevo Herald. Newspaper Publisher’s Statement.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, FAS-FAX report for consumer magazines, June 30, 2008 and 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, FAS-FAX report for consumer magazines, June 30, 2008 and 2009; December 31, 2008 and 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, FAS-FAX report for consumer magazines, June 30, 2008 and 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, FAS-FAX report for consumer magazines, June 30, 2008 and 2009; December 31, 2008 and 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, FAS-FAX report for consumer magazines, June 30, 2008 and 2009; December 31, 2008 and 2009.

Audit Bureau of Circulations.  La Opinión. 12 Month Audit Report.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Baltimore Afro-American.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Philadelphia Tribune, the Sunday Tribune.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Newspaper Publisher’s Statement, the Washington Afro-American.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid, Verified & Analyzed Non-Paid Magazine Publisher’s Statement. Jet.

Audit Bureau of Circulations. Paid & Verified Magazine Publisher’s Statement. Essence.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid & Verified Publisher’s Statement, Black Enterprise.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Paid & Verified Publisher’s Statement, Giant.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, publisher’s statement.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, Publisher’s Statement, New York Amsterdam News.

Audit Bureau of Circulations, U.S. News & World Report Publisher’s statement.


BET News Release, “BET Celebrates Banner Ratings in 2009, December 30, 2009.

“BET J Relaunches as Centric Today.” Channel Guide Magazine. September 28, 2009.

BIA Financial Network and PEJ Research

BIA/Kelsey Expects TV Station Revenues to End Year Lower Than Anticipated; Levels Last Seen in 1990s Predicted Through 2013,” BIA/Kelsey Advisory Services, December 23, 2009.

BIA/Kelsey Expects TV Station Revenues to End Year Lower Than Anticipated; Levels Last Seen in 1990s Predicted Through 2013,” BIA/Kelsey Advisory Services, December 23, 2009. An earlier projection by the Television Bureau of Advertising estimates indicates that revenues will grow in the range of 3% to 5% in 2010.

BIA/Kelsey Group

BIA/Kelsey Group, PEJ Research

BPA Worldwide audit report, via spokesman Glenn Schutz.

Lonnie Barber, interview with PEJ, October 2009.

David Bauder, “Attack on Obama Riles Beck’s Advertisers,”,” Associated Press, August 23, 2009.

David Bauder, “MSNBC Finding Rerun Is Wise Prime-Time Strategy,” Associated Press, March 30, 2009.

Max Benavidez, project director, LA Public Media, Interview with PEJ, December 2, 2009.

Max Benavidez, project director, LA Public Media, Interview with PEJ, December 8, 2009.

Jeff Bercovici, “The Stewart Dip? Ratings Down for CNBC, Cramer,” Portfolio, March 13, 2009

Jeff Bercovici, “Tablets From Above,” the New York Observer, January 5, 2010.

Jeff Bercovici, “’U.S. News’ Launching Digital Newsweekly,”, January 23, 2009.

Better Black TV Website

Black America Website

Black Television News Channel Website

Bloomberg acquires BusinessWeek,” BBC, October 13, 2009.

Stephen J. Blumberg and Julian V. Luke, “Wireless Substitution: Early Release of Estimates From the National Health Interview Survey, January – June 2009,” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Borrel Associates, “2010: Outlook: Local Interactive Adversting,” October, 2009or landlines.

Susan Braine, interview with PEJ, October 22, 2009.

Jim Browder, interview with PEJ, October 20, 2009.

Curt Brown, “Indian Watchdog Newspaper Issues Its Final Bark,” Minneapolis-St. Paul Star Tribune, October 1, 2009.

Mercedes Bunz, “ relaunch to focus on video,” the Guardian (Britain), October 23, 2009.

Business Wire, “The New York Times Announces Plans for Metered Model for in 2011,” January 20, 2010.

Mike Butcher, “Updated: A Year Later, AOL Is Contemplating a Bebo Sale,” Washington Post, January 27, 2009.


CBS listed 223 in the directory in 2009, up from 220 in 2008.

CBS News Revamps,” Radio Business Report/Television Business Report, June 16, 2009.

“CNN Abu Dhabi marks official opening with premier of ‘Prism,’ ”, November 3, 2009.

Michael Calderone, “Layoffs at Newsweek,”, November 11, 2009. The memo does not specify if the layoffs were in the newsroom or across the company.

Michael Calderone, “Report: Fox cancels Beltway Boys,” Politico, April 30, 2009.

James Calla, “Clear Channel Communications Cuts 590 Radio Workers” Bloomberg, April 28, 2009.

Nicholas Carlson, “CBS News Goes Live On The Internet With Ustream,” Business Insider, Silicon Valley Insider, June 1, 2009.

David Carr, “Newsweek’s Journalism of Fourth and Long,” New York Times, May 24, 2009.

David Carr, “Partnership for CBS News and GlobalPost on Foreign Reports,” New York Times, September 28, 2009.

Jeanne Carstensen, PEJ interview, December 18, 2009.

Bill Carter, “Matthews Renews Contract at MSNBC,” Bill Carter, March 22, 2009.

Bill Carter, “NBC Is Buoyed by a Matrix of Winners,” New York Times, March 8, 2009.

Casey made his remarks at the Pew Research Center’s conference on Millennials in Washington, D.C., February 24, 2010.

Alexa Cassanos, PEJ interview, December 17, 2009.

“Characteristics of the U.S. Population, March 2009: By Race and Ethnicity.” Pew Hispanic Center. Based on tabulations of the March 2009 Current Population Survey. In e-mail from Mark Lopez.

Esther Chavez, interview with PEJ. December 21, 2009.

Talibah Chikwendu, “Tea Party Marches Far Right & White.” the Afro, September 17, 2009.

Jeff Clabaugh, “Radio One Buys Social Networking Company for $38M,” Baltimore Business Journal.

Stephanie Clifford, “A Magazine Promises Ads Will Register,” New York Times, November 9, 2009.

Stephanie Clifford, “Magazines Get Ready for Tablets,” New York Times,

Stephanie Clifford and David Carr, “Bloomberg Buys BusinessWeek From McGraw-Hill,”, October 13, 2009.

Max Colchester, “Vivendi To Sell 20% Stake in NBCU To GE For $5.8 Bln,” The Wall Street Journal, December 3, 2009.

Scott Collins, “At MSNBC, weekends aren’t newsworthy,” Los Angeles Times, June 24, 2009.

John Consoli, “Univision Jumps Back Into Upfront Market,” MediaWeek, January 24, 2010.

John Cook, “Salon Lays Off Six In Pursuit of Becoming a ‘True Web Publication,’ ” August 17, 2009.

Council for Research Excellence, “How U.S. Adults Use Radio and Other Forms of Audio.” October 29, 2009. Study commissioned by Nielsen.

Couric Faces Pay Cut; Deep Layoffs Hit CBS News,” Drudge Report, February 3, 2010.

Katie Couric Debuts New Web Show,”, September 21, 2009.


The Daily Beast. “The Daily Beast Turns One,” October 5, 2009. Accessed December 19, 2009.

Sarah Damian, “Native American Newspaper’s Niche Keeps It Afloat,” New America Media, September 25, 2009.

Rebecca Dana, “CNBC Ratings Jump Amid Turmoil,” Wall Street Journal, September 18, 2008.

Christine Delargy, “Weekly Standard Sold to Clarity Media Group, Examiner’s owner,” Fishbowl DC, June 17, 2009.

Paul DeMain, interview with PEJ, October 22, 2009.

Paul DeMain, interview with PEJ, February 17, 2010.

Demographics of Internet Usage.” Pew Internet & American Life Project, October 30, 2009

Dennis Publishing, press releases. The Land Rover announcement was made on December 1, 2009, and the Kontraband announcement on July 20, 2009.

Bill Densmore founded Clickshare Service Corp. and remains a major stockholder, his name is on the patent cited.

Glen Dickson, “ABC Lays Off 31 in Broadcast Operations, Engineering,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 27, 2010.

Glen Dickson, “Fox Business Gets a New Look,” Broadcasting & Cable, April 20, 2009.

Glen Dickson, “Mobile DTV Standard Approved,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 16, 2009.

Glen Dickson, “OMVC Claims Consumer Appetite For Mobile DTV,” Broadcasting and Cable, December 9, 2009. Among all adults surveyed, 47% said they would be interested in getting a device with mobile DTV capability if they were shopping for a new mobile device.

Glen Dickson, “Telemundo Taps LSN Mobile for iPhone,” Broadcasting & Cable, February 23, 2010.

Larry Dobrow, “Essence Is No. 6 on Ad Age’s Magazine A-List,” Advertising Age, October 19, 2009.
Economic Notes, Office of the New York City Comptroller, November 2009.


Eat Your Heart Out Brian Williams, Couric Gets Own App,” MediaPost News Brief, January 7, 2009.

The Economist, “Eight questions for Jacob Weisberg,” July 11, 2009.

The Economist Group, press release, June 22, 2009. Accessed December 17, 2009.

John Eggerton, “Broadcasters to FCC: Digital Age Increasing Competition, Ownership Rules Harmful,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 4, 2009.

John Eggerton, “Cross-Ownership Changes: Wait Till Next Year,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 7, 2009.

John Eggerton, “Nielsen Moves Feb. 2009 Sweeps To March,” Broadcasting and Cable, April 30, 2008.

John Eggerton, “Public Interest Groups Argue Against Loosening of Ownership Rules,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 3, 2009.

Haya El Nasser, “U.S. Census Reports on Arab-Americans for First Time,” November 20, 2003.

E-mail from Steven Chin, director, Reznet, Oct. 22, 2009, and Reznet Website

E-mail from Neil Foote, February 16, 2010

E-mail from Odette Keeley, November 16, 2009.

E-mail from Leah Kosin, office manager, Asian Fortune, November 17, 2009.

E-mail from Yukai Liu, January 5, 2010.

E-mail from Mark Lopez, November 30, 2009.

E-mail from Greg Macabenta, November 16, 2009.

E-mail from Monica Talan, Univision, October 8, 2009.

eMarketer, “Consumer Magazines: Rethinking Paper and Pixels.” March, 2009.

eMarketer reports that 60% of the mobile ad market is in text-messaging. Veronis Suhler Stevenson reports 70%.

eMarketer, “U.S. Online Ad Spending Turns a Corner,” December 11, 2009.

Juan Esparza. Interview with PEJ. January 26, 2010.

Essence Lays Off Digital Team,” Journalisticks, November 4, 2009.

Kenneth “KC” Estenson, note to staff, posted on WebNewser, November 12, 2009.

Estrella TV Touts November Sweeps Performance,”, December 9, 2009.

Ethnic Media Study 2009 Topline, New America Media.


Antoine Faisal, interview with PEJ, November 23, 2009.

William Falk, PEJ interview, December 4, 2009.

Jason Fell, “Behind the Reader’s Digest Bankruptcy Filing,”, August 18, 2009.

Jason Fell, “Buyout Window Closes, Layoffs Loom at Time Inc.,”, November 18, 2009.

Jason Fell, “CQ-Roll Call Group Reorganizes, 44 Editorial Positions Eliminated
Changes come nearly two months after acquisition, merger,” September 24, 2009.

Jason Fell, “FOLIO: Show Panel: Magazines No Longer ‘Center of the Universe,’ ”, October 27, 2009.

Jason Fell, “McGraw-Hill Sells BusinessWeek to Bloomberg: Acquisition will ‘yield huge benefits for users of the Bloomberg terminal,’ ”, October 13, 2009.

Jason Fell, “New Owner: Sale of TV Guide for $1 ‘Needs to be Taken into Perspective’/ Andrew Nikou targets return to profitability by end of ’09,”, October 26, 2009.

Jason Fell, “The New Republic Sold to Former Editor,”, March 9, 2009.

Jason Fell, “Why Are Successful Magazines Folding?”, March 31, 2009.

Mark Fitzgerald, “Black Business Monthly to Distribute Through ‘Chicago Defender,’ ” Editor & Publisher, December 9, 2009.

Joe Flint, “Current TV’s cuts acknowledge a strategy that didn’t catch fire,” Los Angeles Times, November 11, 2009.

Neil Foote, interview with PEJ, December 18. 2009., “About FP,” accessed January 5, 2010.

Jack Fowler, interview with PEJ, January 6, 2010.

Mark Fratrik, e-mail communication with PEJ, November 16, 2009.

Wayne Friedman, “Comcast-NBC Integration To Come Long After Other Marketplace Changes,” MediaPost Publications, December 8, 2009.

Wayne Friedman, “Disney Strikes Deal With YouTube,” MediaPost News, March 31, 2009.

Wayne Friedman, “GroupM May Appeal Local TV’s ‘Live-Only’ Death Sentence,” MediaPost Publications, November 11, 2009.

Wayne Friedman, “Major Ad Groups Endorse Live-Only Ratings, Reject Nielsen Stance,” MediaPost Publication, January 25, 2010.

Wayne Friedman, “Reach Out: AT&T Entertainment Streams TV, Movies,” MediaPost News, September 10, 2009.

Amanda Fung, “CBS launches residential real estate site,” Crain’s New York Business, September 24, 2009.


Glenn Garvin, “Pedro Sevec Leaves Telemundo,” Changing Channels, a Miami Herald Blog, December 14, 2009.

Felix Gillette, “Bloomberg’s Newbie Newsies,” New York Observer, March 5, 2009.

Felix Gillette, “NBC Universal Seeking Another Round of Voluntary Buyouts from News Staff,” New York Observer, September 15, 2009.

“Newt Gingrich Launches Bilingual News Site,” Latino Perspectives, October 10, 2009.

David Goetzl, “Bankers To Buy Young Broadcasting For $220 Million,” MediaPost News, July 15, 2009. The deal was completed through an equity-for-debt exchange, in which Young’s debt holders took the company’s assets in exchange for the cancellation of its sizable debt.

Matea Gold, “ABC News prepares major restructuring; between 300 and 400 staffers could be cut,” Company Town blog, Los Angeles Times, February 23, 2010.

Matea Gold, “CNN downplays ratings slump,” Los Angeles Times, November 4, 2009.

Matea Gold, “Layoffs to hit CBS News next week,” Los Angeles Times, Company Town blog, January 29, 2010.

Bill Gorman, “BET Posts +37% Total Viewership Increases in July 2009,” TV by the Numbers, July 30, 2009.

Marc Graser, “MySpace cuts 30% of staff,” Variety, June 16, 2009.

Gray Selected as Management Advisor for Seven Television Stations,” Gray Television press release, July 30, 2009.

Ben Grossman, “Rupert’s main man: Q&A with News Corp.’s Chase Carey,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 24, 2009.

Sam Gustin, “The Comcast-GE deal includes NBC local stations—triggering regulatory scrutiny,” Daily Finance, December 1, 2009.

Marisa Guthrie, “Candy Crowley to Helm ‘State of the Union,’ ” Broadcasting & Cable, January 31, 2010.

Marisa Guthrie, “Chris Cuomo to Co-Anchor ‘20/20,’ ” Broadcasting & Cable, December 10, 200

Marisa Guthrie, “ Acquires EveryBlock,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 17, 2009.

Marisa Guthrie, “More Advertisers Pull Ads From Glenn Beck’s Fox News Show,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 13, 2009.

Marisa Guthrie, “Dylan Ratigan Joins MSNBC,” Broadcasting & Cable, May 6, 2009.

Marisa Guthrie, “Telemundo Announces News Initiative,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 14, 2009.

Félix Gutiérrez, Interview with PEJ, December 1, 2009

Sandra Guy, “Jet Redesigns to Get More Readers On Board,” Chicago Sun Times, February 3, 2010.


Shirin Hakimzadeh and D’Vera Cohn. “English Usage Among Hispanics in the United States.” Pew Hispanic Center. November 29, 2007.

Ray Hanania Biography, Media Oasis.

Harrington Associates LLC, via e-mail from John Harrington, February 8, 2010. The figures include the United States and Canada.

Hearst Corporation press release, “Skiff E-Reading Service To Launch In 2010,” December 4, 2009.

Thomas Heath, “Radio One Continues Rebound With Profitable Quarter,” The Washington Post. October 30, 2009.

Dave Hendricks, “Is the Bell Tolling for Clear Channel?” San Antonio Express News, June 27, 2009.

James Hibberd, “Fox News set for best year yet, despite Obama,” Reuters, June 24, 2009.

Hispanic Broadband Access: Making the Most of the Mobile, Connected Future,” the Hispanic Institute & Mobile Future, September 15, 2009.

Hispanic Radio Today 2009: How America Listens to Radio, Arbitron.

Hispanics in the News,” Project for Excellence in Journalism. December 7, 2009.

Brian Ho, interview with PEJ, November 20, 2009.

Robert D. Hof. “Why is Google Buying AdMob?”  BusinessWeek, November 9, 2009.

Hopi Council Budget Shuts Down Newspaper,” Arizona Daily Sun, December 1, 2009.

Jason Horowitz, “An extended Q&A with Glenn Beck,” GQ, June 16, 2009.

Jeffrey M. Humphreys, “The Multicultural Economy 2008,” The Selig Center for Economic Growth.

Samir Husni, PEJ interview, December 8, 2009.


Sergio Ibarra, “HLN’s Growth Validates Programming Strategy, Jautz Says,” TVWeek, April 5, 2009.

ImpreMedia and AOL Latino announce alliance for content exchange.” impreMedia press release. November 12, 2009.

ImpreMedia to Tap Into Hyperlocal Blogs,” El Diario/La Prensa, December 2, 2009. Translated by New America Media. (Original)

“The Infinite Dial 2009,” Arbitron, April 2009

InterActiveCorp, third quarter filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

Internet Advertising Bureau and PricewaterhouseCoopers “Internet Ad Revenues at $10.9 Billion for First Half of ’09,” October 5, 2009.


Eliza Jacobs, associate director, PBS Research, e-mail communication on February 18, 2009.

Elizabeth Jensen, “Stressing the Web, ‘NewsHour’ Begins an Overhaul,” New York Times, November 30, 2009.

Elizabeth Jensen, “Stressing the Web, ‘NewsHour’ Begins an Overhaul,” New York Times, November 30, 2009.
PBS NewsHour website, July 1, 2008-January 31, 2010. Overall Traffic, Absolute Unique Visitors.

Bobbie Johnson, “TV websites must begin charging, says Murdoch lieutenant,” the Guardian (Britain), October 23, 2009.

Jordan, Edmiston Group, press release, “Positive Signs of M&A Recovery in Second Half of 2009,” January 2, 2010.

Tom Junod, “Because They Hate Shepard Smith and Want Him to Fail,” Esquire, February 10, 2009.


Peter Kafka, “CBS Digital Exec Quincy Smith Eyes New Role in Investment Banking,” All Things Digital, May 11, 2009.

Peter Kafka, “With an Eye on the iPad, Condé Nast Declares Its $39,000 iPhone Magazine a ‘Success,’” All Things Digital, January 21, 2010.

Ashkan Karbasfrooshan, “Will Online Video’s Ad Revenue Ever Surpass Search Advertising’s?” MediaPost Video Insider e-mail newsletter, February 3, 2010.

Odette Keeley, interview with PEJ, November 13, 2009.

Brian Kelly, PEJ interview, December 10, 2009.

Keith J. Kelly, “Glamour, Wired take latest hits,” New York Post, October 20, 2009.

Kevin Kingsbury and Sarah McBride, “Cox Enterprises Launches Cash Tender Offer for Cox Radio Shares,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2009.

Michael Kinsley, “Backward Runs ‘Newsweek,’ ” New Republic, May 21, 2009.

John Koblin, “The Last Magazine Standing,” New York Observer, November 10, 2009.

Verne Kopytoff, “Gore’s Current Media scraps plan for IPO in face of weak economy,” San Francisco Chronicle, April 11, 2009.

Staci D. Kramer, “CBS Interactive Sees Opportunity In The Downturn; Launching,”, January 27, 2009.

Staci D. Kramer, “Interview: Bloomberg’s Pearlstine: Buying BusinessWeek Matches Need — And Desire,”, October 13, 2009.

Steve Krakauer, “Campbell  Brown Returns: No More ‘No Bias, No Bull,’ ” TVNewser, June 2, 2009.

Alissa Krinsky, “Joy Behar: New HLN Show ‘an Infusion of Humor’ During Serious Times,” TVNewser, September 28, 2009.

Howard Kurtz, “Business Is Slow for Fox Channel,” Washington Post, July 26, 2008.

Howard Kurtz, “Fox Ferreting Out Fans,” Washington Post, March 30, 2009.

Howard Kurtz, “O’Reilly: You Still Have Me to Kick Around,” Washington Post, October 22, 2009.

Howard Kurtz, “Washington Post Will Pair With Bloomberg,” Washington Post, October 2, 2009.


LA 18 Asian American Media Overview 2009.

Mark Landler and Peter Baker, “Bill Clinton and Journalists in Emotional Return to U.S.,” New York Times, August 5, 2009.

Latino Print Network, The State of Hispanic Print 2008.

Alice Lee, interview with PEJ, November 12, 2009.

Jason Lee, interview with PEJ, October 2009.

The Long Tail, Revised and Updated Edition: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More by Chris Anderson, 2008.

Dyna Lopez, “Filipinos Among the Biggest Spenders in U.S.,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, June 16, 2009.  Accessed via


Macrovision Solutions Corporation, 8-K filing with SEC dated January 5, 2009.

“Magazines, the medium of action,” MPA Handbook, 2009-2010. The handbook estimates subscription revenue at $6.7 billion and single-copy revenue at $3.1 billion for 2008.

Michael Malone, “Fox’s NY Duop Cuts 20,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 22, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Freedom Communications Implements Furloughs,” Broadcasting & Cable, March 23, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Gannett Mandates Round 2 of Furloughs,” Broadcasting & Cable, March 23, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Granite-Barrington Partnership Hits Stations Hard,” Broadcasting & Cable, March 3, 2009.

Michael Malone, “KTTV Source: Fox L.A. to Cut 117 Sept. 10,” Broadcasting & Cable, September 8, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Media General Furthers Furloughs,” Broadcasting & Cable, September 18, 2009.

Michael Malone, “NBC Restructures Creative Services at O&Os,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 7, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Newport TV Mandates Furloughs,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 8, 2009.

Malone, Michael, “Station Websites to Make $1.3 billion in 2009,” Broadcasting & Cable, April 2, 2009.

Malone, Michael, “Stations Come Out Swinging,” Broadcasting and Cable, August 24, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Station Websites: New Platform, New Name,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 15, 2009.

Michael Malone, “Study: Stations ‘Have a Long Way to Go’ on Web,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 6, 2009.

Michael Malone, “WPTV Outsources Sports to ESPN Radio,” Broadcasting and Cable, December 4, 2009.

Suzanne Manneh, interview with PEJ, November 20, 2009

Jacqueline Marino, “Salon CEO Richard Gingras: ‘It Was a Mistake to Think of Ourselves As a Magazine,’ ” PoynterOnline, September 9, 2009.

Marketing to Asian Americans,” AdweekMedia, May 26, 2008.

Laura Martinez, “Q&A: Kevin Conroy, President, Univision Interactive Media,” Multichannel News, October 20, 2009.

Laura Martinez, “Mega TV, WRNN Sign Affiliation Deal,” Multichannel News, February 4, 2010.

Julia Mayes, “Positively Black: NBC Launches The Grio,”, September 18, 2009.

The Maynard Institute, “Minority Radio Ownership at a Standstill,” November 2, 2009.

Sarah McBride, “In a First, Sirius XM Posts Subscriber Drop,” May 8, 2009., “GQ,’ ‘Esquire’ Offer iPhone Editions,” December 20, 2009., via e-mail from spokeswoman Lisa Hendrickson, December 22, 2009. The figures are for the United States and Canada.

MediaWeek, accessed November 11, 2009. Figures are year-to-date totals.

Mediaweek, “Titles mine Web for subs: Hearst, Condé Nast and Rodale see gains via online,” May 11, 2009.

Memo from ABC Television group president Anne Sweeney to ABC News employees obtained by the MediaBistro website, January 29, 2009.

Diane Mermigas, “Digital Transition: Going Hyper Local,” MediaPost Blogs, July 2, 2009.

Diane Mermigas, “TV Station Revenue Crisis: Mind the Gap,” MediaPost Blogs, July 6, 2009.

Bill Mickey, interview with PEJ, December 9, 2009.

Carol Morello, “Census Gets Some Latino Help and Needs It,” Washington Post, October 2, 2009.

Lucia Moses, “Maghound still a pup: Time Inc.’s year-old circ service yet to post solid sale,”  Mediaweek, July 6, 2009.

Alan Mutter, “Holy Moses! Media need to gear up for tablets,” Reflections of a Newsosaur, January 8, 2010.

“MySpace and FOX News launch “uReport” community on world’s leading social portal,” Fox News Channel media relations, press release, April 20, 2009.


NBC e-mail communication with PEJ, October, 29, 2009

Ryan Nakashima, “5 publishers plan rival to Kindle format,” Associated Press, December 8, 2009. Accessed from on December 21, 2009.

Ryan Nakashima, “5 publishers plan rival to Kindle format,” Associated Press,  December 8, 2009. Accessed from on December 21, 2009.

NPR Press release, July 2009

New America Media. Ethnic Media Study 2009 Topline.

New York State Department of Labor online records. Accessed December 4, 2009.

New World Gets Pappas TV for $260 M,” TVNewsCheck, January 16, 2009. New World is backed by private equity companies Fortress Credit, Cerberus Capital Management and Angelo Gordon & Co.

Ngoc Nguyen, interview with PEJ, November 9, 2009.

Nguoi Viet 2008 Media Kit

“Nielsen Ad Intelligence Spotlight on Multi-Cultural Advertising.” October 2009.


Eric Olander, interview with PEJ, November 17, 2009

Noreen O’Leary. “Hispanic Market Is Set to Soar,” BrandWeek, November 2, 2009.

John J. Oliver, interview with PEJ, December 9, 2009.

John J. Oliver, interview with PEJ, December 18, 2009.

Gavin O’Malley, “CBS Launches MoneyWatch, Partners With LinkedIn,” MediaPost News, April 7, 2009.

$1B In Political Spending Possible in 2009,” TV NewsDay, May 14, 2009.

Hayg Oshagan, interview with PEJ, November 24, 2009

Shira Ovide, “Fortune Magazine Cuts Back Number of Issues,” Wall Street Journal, October 23, 2009.

Shira Ovide and Russell Adams, “Media Firms to Unveil Joint Venture for Digital Devices,” Wall Street Journal, December 7, 2009.


Robert Papper, RTNDA/Hofstra University Annual News Director Survey, “News Staffing and Profitability,” RTNDA Communicator, September/October 2008

Robert Papper, “TV and Radio Staffing and News Profitability Survey 2009,” RTNDA/Hofstra University Survey, RTNDA Communicator, April 2009.

Christi Parsons, “Obama Stumps for Student Loan Plan, Hails New Web Rules,” LA Times, September 21, 2009.

Jeffrey Passel and D’Vera Cohn.  “Mexican Immigrants: How Many Come? How Many Leave?” Pew Hispanic Center, July 22, 2009.

Jeffrey S. Passel and D’Vera Cohn, “U.S. Populations Projections: 2005-2050,” Pew Hispanic Center, February 11, 2008.

PEJ interview with CBS RADIO.

PEJ Interview with Jim Farley, vice president of news and programming at WTOP radio in Washington, D.C., 2008.

PEJ interview with David Sit, vice president, NewsHour, February 8, 2010.

Pew Hispanic Center computations based on 2000-2009 population estimates released by the U.S. Census Bureau in December 2009.

Pew Hispanic Center, “Latinos Online, 2006-2008: Narrowing the Gap,” December 22, 2009.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Editor & Publisher Finds New Owner,” New York Times, January 15, 2010.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Glimmers of Progress at a Leaner Newsweek,” New York Times, November 15, 2009.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Newsweek Plans Makeover to Fit a Smaller Audience,” New York Times, February 8, 2009.

Personal communication with Derek Baine, SNL Kagan analyst, January 4, 2009

Personal communication with Loren Hynes, Fox News Channel publicist, February 25, 2010.

Personal communication with Gina Stikes, publicist, January 28, 2010.

Personal communication with MSNBC spokesperson Jeremy Gaines, February 2, 2010.

Julie Pham, interview with PEJ, November 11, 2009

Phone interview with Paul DeMain, editor in chief, News From Indian Country.

Vivian Po, “Birth of a Newspaper in an Age of Print Decline,” New America Media, April 19, 2009.

David Pogue,  “HD Radio Crying Out to Be Heard,” New York Times, April 8, 2009.

Richard Prince, “Ebony Puts Its Fashion Fair on Hold,” Journal-isms, September 8, 2009.

Richard Prince, “Giant Magazine to Fold as Print Publication,” Journal-isms, November 30, 2009.

Richard Prince, “Comcast-NBC Merger Not Expected to Affect TV One,” Journal-isms, November 16, 2009.

Publishers Information Bureau, Magazine Titles Data, January 12, 2010.

Publishers Information Bureau, “PIB Ad Revenue and Pages,” October 9, 2009.

Publishers Information Bureau, “PIB Ad Revenue and Pages,” January 12, 2010.

Brett Pulley, “Magic Johnson in Talks to Buy Publisher of Ebony, Jet Magazines,” Bloomberg BusinessWeek, February 13, 2010.


Que Pasa Media

Que Pasa Publication Audit Report. Circulation Verification Council.


Radio Advertising Bureau, “09 Year-End Results Confirm Positive Signs for Radio Digital Sector Continues To Gain Importance,” February 19, 2010

Radio Online, “Michael Savage Is Out at KNEW-AM/San Francisco,” September 9, 2009.

Mary Ratcliff, interview with PEJ, December 17, 2009.

Reported Internet Usage for Households, by Selected Household Characteristics, Current Population Survey, October 2007.

John Reynolds, “Economist Group buys Congressional Quarterly,”, July 22, 2009.

Mike Reynolds, “Hispanic TV Summit: Telemundo’s Browne—Count On Census 2010 Being a ‘Game-Changer,’” Multichannel News/Broadcasting & Cable, September 24, 2009.

Motoko Rich, “Daily Beast Seeks to Publish Faster,” New York Times, September 28, 2009.

Kelly Riddell and Justin Blum, “Justice Department to Study Comcast Takeover of NBC,”, January 6, 2010.

Phil Rosenthal, “ ‘Monsters and Money in the Morning’ to Debut on WBBM-Ch. 2 in February,” Chicago Tribune, December 3, 2009.

Phil Rosenthal, “Tribune Co. Launches Cross-Platform Sales Effort Targeting Growing U.S. Hispanic Population,” Tower Ticker: The Media Business in Chicago and Beyond, a Chicago Tribune Blog, December 7, 2009.

Betsy Rothstein, “TNR’s Layoffs Up to Six,” FishbowlDC, December 16, 2009.
Arbitron Radar, December 7, 2009

James Ryu, interview with PEJ, November 5, 2009.


SNL Kagan, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks,” August 2009.

Saigon Broadcasting Television Network Website

St. Louis American Website

Salon Media Group, 10-K/A filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission for fiscal year ending March 31, 2009.

Catherine J. K. Sandoval. “Minority Commercial Radio Ownership in 2009: FCC Licensing and Consolidation Policies, Entry Windows, and the Nexus Between Ownership, Diversity and Service in the Public Interest,” November 2009.

David Sarno, “CNN’s new iPhone app takes mobile news to the next level,” Los Angeles Times, September 28, 2009.

Erik Sass, “More E-Reader Deals, Courtesy ‘WSJ,’ Sony,” MediaDailyNews, December 18, 2009.

Michael Schneider, “No news is bad news,” Variety, October 23, 2009.

Anne Schelle, telephone interview with PEJ, December 22, 2009.

Eric Scigliano, “Phamily Newspaper,” Seattle Metropolitan Magazine, September 2009.

SEC Filing, September 30, 2009.

Eric Seitz,  “Sirius Gets Nasdaq ‘Minimum Bid’ Warning; Could Lead to Reverse Split.”  Barron’s, September 17, 2009.

Danny Shea, “CBS News President Praises Katie Couric, Says No Discussion of Pay Cut,” Huffington Post, February 3, 2010.

Mike Shields, “TV Nets Boost iPhone Presence,” AdWeek , October 15, 2009.

Mike Shields, “TV Nets Boost iPhone Presence,” AdWeek , October 15, 2009. Users will also be able to view full episodes of several original CBS News Web series, including the Tomorrow Show, Washington Unplugged and Doc Dot Com.

Osama Siblani, interview with PEJ. November 23, 2009.

MG Siegler, “Pandora (And Other Internet Radio) Has Officially Been Saved,” TechCrunch, July 7, 2009.

SiriusXM press releases, “about us.” Accessed December 18, 2009.

Connie Louise Smith, interview with PEJ, October 2009

Some revenue fluctuations from 2007 to 2008 are attributable to the number of local TV stations a group owns, which can vary based on the sale or purchase of stations.

Spanish Broadcasting System press release, “Spanish Braodcasting System, Inc. Granted Continued Listing on Nasdaq,” February 16, 2010.

Spanish Broadcasting System press release, “Mega TV Launches New Weekly Show: ‘Conversemos,’” February 10, 2010.

Dylan Stableford, “Felix Dennis Says The Week Is for Sale: But don’t go falling off a cliff just yet—he wants £200 million,”, May 6, 2009.

Statistical Portrait of Hispanics in the United States, 2007,” Pew Hispanic Center, March 5, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “Fox Business Needs a Lift. Could It Be Don Imus?” New York Times, August 16, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “John Stossel Leaving ABC for Fox Business Network,” New York Times, September 10, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “MSNBC Expands Its Liberal Lineup,” New York Times, April 2, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “MSNBC Extends Keith Olbermann’s Contract,” New York Times, November 10, 2008.

Brian Stelter, “NBC-Comcast Deal Puts Broadcast TV in Doubt,” The New York Times, December 6, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “Switch to Digital TV Wins a Delay to June 12,” New York Times, February 4, 2009.

Brian Stelter, “Yes, Stewart, CNBC Still Trusts Cramer,” New York Times, March 23, 2009.

Brian Stelter and Bill Carter, “Fox News’s Mad, Apocalyptic, Tearful Rising Star,” New York Times, March 30, 2009.

Brian Stelter and Bill Carter, “News Units at ABC and CBS Try to Navigate Uncertain Times,” New York Times, February 28, 2009.

Denise Stewart, “Two Black Groups Looking to Buy Ebony,”, October 12, 2009.

Brad Stone and Brian Stelter, “ABC Will Add Its Shows to Hulu Site,” New York Time, April 30, 2009.

Lauren Streib, “Winning The Week,” Forbes Magazine, October 22, 2009.

Syndicaster to put local TV on YouTube,” BNET blogs, April 14, 2009.

Georg Szalai and Paul Bond, “Everybody’s Business,” Hollywood Reporter, April 16, 2009


TNS/CMAG forecast, September 2009.

TVK24 press release, “Television Korea 24 (TVK24) Announces Launch of TVK2 Throughout the Los Angeles, CA Area on Time Warner Cable Channel 655,” November 13, 2009.

Kenji G. Taguma, interview with PEJ, December 17, 2009.

David Tanklefsky, “ABC News Launches Branded YouTube Channel,” Broadcasting & Cable, May 16, 2009.

Elinor Tatum, interview with PEJ, December 15, 2009

Loris Taylor, interview with PEJ, October 18, 2009.

Television Bureau of Advertising, “Forecast Conference: A Look at 2010,” September 10, 2009.

Television Bureau of Advertising, “2009 TV Ad Revenue Figures, Top 25 Local Broadcast TV Categories, Jan.-Sep. 2009,” December 18, 2009.

Telephone interview with PEJ, December 10, 2009.

Telemundo Reorganization Could Mean Job Losses,” Richard Prince’s Journal-isms: An Online Column, November 25, 2009.

Derek Thompson, “Facebook Turns a Profit, Users Hits 300 Million,” The, September 17, 2009.

Time Warner Cable Spinoff to Finish Next Month,” New York Times, February 27, 2009.

“Time Warner profit slips 14%,” Associated Press, April 29, 2009.

Time Warner to complete cable spin-off on March 27,” Reuters, February 26, 2009.

TNS Media Intelligence

Evan Tracey, e-mail communication with PEJ, December 1, 2009.

Jason Turbow, “It’s Official: Anschutz Buys Weekly Standard,”, August 4, 2009.

“275 New Magazines Launch And 428 Fold In 2009 According To Mediafinder.Com,” press release, December 14, 2009.

2008 American Community Survey, “Asian Alone by Selected Groups,” retrieved February 12, 2010.

2009 Mendelsohn Affluent Survey, data obtained from Bloomberg Television.

2009 State of the News Media.

2010 Media kit, Black Enterprise.


U.S. Census Bureau, “American Indian and Alaska Native Heritage Month: November 2009,” October 15, 2009.

U.S. Census Bureau, “Census Bureau Estimates Nearly Half of Children Under Age 5 Are Minorities,” May 14, 2009

U.S. Census Bureau: Fact Finder

U.S. Census Bureau, Median Household Income.

U.S. Census Bureau, National Population Projections, released 2009 (based on Census 2000).

U.S. Census Bureau, Population Estimates Program.

U.S. Census Bureau, 2008 American Community Survey

U.S. Census Bureau, “U.S. Hispanic Population Surpasses 45 Million,” May 1, 2008.

US Online Advertising Spending, by Format, 2008-2014,” eMarketer, December 2009.

“U.S. Population Projections: 2005-2050.” Pew Hispanic Center. February 11, 2008.

US Senate panel to discuss Comcast/NBC deal Feb. 4,” Reuters, January 20, 2010.

U.S. to Review Comcast-NBC Deal,” The Associated Press, Janury 6, 2010.

Understanding the Participatory News Consumer, March 1, 2010,

Univision Communications Inc. press release, “Univision Announces 2009 Fourth Quarter and Full Year Results, February 25, 2010.

Univision Communications press release

“Univision Creates TV Production Company,” New York Times, December 7, 2009.

Univision has its best broadcast season ever,” Univision Press Release, May 21, 2009.

“Univision Interactive Media and Flock Develop Spanish-Language Social Web Browser,” Trading, October 31, 2009.

“Univision Maintains Programming Leadership During November Sweep,” Univision e-Release, November 25, 2009.

Univision Readies Launch of WXNY X96.3/New York,” Radio Online, October 14, 2009.


VSS press release accompanying the release of the forecast, August 3, 2009.

Jimmy Vega. Interview with PEJ. December 7, 2009.

Verified Audit Circulation audit report for the period ending June 2008.

Veronis Suhler Stevenson, “Community Industry Forecast 2008-2012”

Veronis Suhler Stevenson, Communications Industry Forecast, 2008-2013.

Veronis Suhler Stevenson, 2009-2013 Communications Industry Forecast.

Veronis Suhler Stevenson Communications Industry Forecast 2009-2013, August 3,

Veronis, Suhler, Stevenson, 2010 Communications Industry Forecast, August 2009.

García Villa Named ImpreMedia News Director,” Media Moves, February 22, 2010.

Veronica Villafañe, “Estrella TV Expands to Chicago,”v Media Moves, February 23, 2010.

Veronica Villafañe, “Liberman Buys Denver Station for $6.5 Million,” Media Moves, February 3, 2010.

Veronica Villafañe, “Univision Creates Telenovela Web Site,” Media Moves, February 24, 2010.

“ ‘Vidas Cruzadas’ (Crossed Lives) Delivers Record-Breaking Video Streams on,” Press Release.  21 Sept. 2009.

David Von Drehle, “Mad Man: Is Glenn Beck Bad for America?,” Time, September 17, 2009.

V-Me Website.


Washington Post Company SEC filing, third quarter 2009

Washington Post Company, 10-Q filing with the SEC, November 6, 2009.

Robin Wauters, “Report: 44% of Google News Visitors Scan Headlines, Don’t Click Through,” TechCrunch, January 19, 2010.

The Week, Accessed December 4, 2009.

The Week, audience information. Accessed from the company’s website.

Jacob Weisberg, PEJ interview, December 22, 2009.

Laurel Wentz, “Ad Spending in Spanish-Language Media Falls by 6.3%, Nielsen Says,” Advertising Age, October 29, 2009.

Laurel Wentz, “Banking on Univision: Paying Down the Debt,” Advertising Age, December 7, 2009.

Alex Weprin, “John Stossel Fox Business Bound,” Broadcasting & Cable, September 10, 2009.

Alex Weprin, “Network News – One Click Away,” Broadcasting & Cable, July 18, 2009.

Laura Wides-Munoz, “Univision, Feds Team Up to Boost Hispanic Ed,” Washington Post, February 23, 2010.

David B. Wilkerson, and Goldstein, Steve, “Comcast scores controlling stake in NBC Universal,” MarketWatch, December 3, 2009.

Wireless Internet Use, Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 22, 2009.

Nat Worden, “Sinclair Warns of Bankruptcy If Debt Isn’t Restructured,” Wall Street Journal, July 14, 2009.

The World Journal, Echo Media.


Deborah Yao, “Forecaster Boosts US Ad Revenue Outlook for 2010,” The Associated Press, January 19, 2010.

A Year After Obama’s Election: Blacks Upbeat about Black Progress, Prospects.” Pew Research Center. January 12, 2010.

Leslie Yngojo-Bowes, interview with PEJ, November 17, 2009.

YouTube Inks Deal With Univision (But Skips the Telenovelas),” Wall Street Journal, November 16, 2009.

Z, press releases.