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Source Bibliography

Source Bibliography

The following list comprises the sources used throughout this report.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W&X | Y | Z


“Robin Roberts’ Final Day of Chemotherapy,”, January 16, 2008.

“ABC News Joins Forces with Facebook,”, December 18, 2007.

“100 Leading Media Companies,”

2008 Ad Age Advertising Jobs report: .

“In the largest expansion of foreign bureaus in two decades, ABC News announces the deployment of seven reporters to posts around the globe,” ABC News Media Relations, October 3, 2007.

2007 Fact Pack, Advertising Age.

Advertising Age, October 16, 2007.

Advertising Age, Digital Marketing & Media Fact Pack, April 23, 2007.

Advertising Age 100 Hundred Leading Advertisers:

“Bi-Annual Online Video Study: First-Half 2007 vs. Second-Half 2006,”, 2007.

“2007 Interactive Publisher Survey,”, 2007.

“Online Video: Consumers Prefer News Clips, Shorter Ads,” press release, August 28, 2007.

Adweek, October 3, 2007.

“AdWeek to Expand Digital Offering,” AdWeek, November 20, 2007:

Frank Ahrens, “FCC Chief Offers New Plan on Cross-Ownership,” Washington Post, November 14, 2007.

Frank Ahrens, “Divided FCC Enacts Rule of Media Ownership,” Washington Post, December 19, 2007.

Air America blog, April 25, 2007,

“Air America Completes Sale to Green Family,” Air America press release, March 6, 2007.

American Society of Newspaper Editors, “Diversity Slips in U.S. Newsrooms,” press release, March 26, 2007.

Chris Anderson, “The Long Tail,” Hyperion, 2006; and “The Long Tail,” Wired, 2004:

Peter Appert, “Newspaper Trends and Outlooks,” Goldman Sachs analyst’s report, December 12, 2007.

Peter Appert, “Reducing Estimates (Again) Given new Recession View,” Goldman Sachs analyst’s report, January 9, 2008.

“iTunes Store to Stop Selling NBC Television Shows,” Apple press release, August 31, 2007.

Tim Arango, “Presidential Primaries Lift CNN,” New York Times, March 5, 2008.

“The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms,” Arbitron and Edison Media Research, April 19, 2007.

“Persons Using Radio Report,” Cume Rating Monday-Sunday 6 a.m.-midnight, Arbitron:

“The Infinite Dial 2007: Radio’s Digital Platforms,” Arbitron, April 19, 2007.

“Public Radio Today, How America Listens to Public Radio,” Arbitron, July 12, 2007.

“Radio Today: How Americans Listen to Radio, 2007 Edition,” Arbitron, April 13, 2007.

Arbitron RADAR 93, June 2007, via Radio Advertising Bureau, “Radio Marketing Guide and Fact Book 2007-2008.”

“Harbinger Raises New York Times Stake,” Associated Press via Boston Globe,February 25, 2008.

“Owner May Sell Weather Channel,” Associated Press via, January 3, 2008.

“Google’s stock surpasses $600 a share,” Associated Press, October 8, 2007.

“AOL to Cut 2,000 Jobs,” Associated Press, October 15, 2007.

“Robin Roberts to Begin Chemo Thursday,” Associated Press, September 20, 2007.

Associated Press, “News Corp. says it plans to sell 9 Fox-affiliated TV stations,” International Herald Tribune, June 13, 2007.

“News unlikely to fill TV strike holes,” Associated Press, December 23, 2007.

“ABC expands Spanish-dubbing of series,” Associated Press, July 18, 2006.

“Hispanics to pass blacks in buying power,”Associated Press via, Sept. 1, 2006:

“NBC newscast gets new top producer,” Associated Press, March 5, 2007.

George Avalos, “KRON-TV puts itself up for sale,” San Jose Mercury News, January 10, 2008.

“Digital Consumer Behavior Study,” Avenue A|Razorfish study conducted in July 2007.

Ed Avis, “Alternative Newsweeklies: Growing Up,” Quill, January 28, 2008.

Audit Bureau of Circulations.

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.Katy Bachman, “Imus Gives WABC Ratings Boost,” MediaWeek, December 10, 2007.

W. Scott Bailey, “Clear Channel, Others Raise Ratings Concerns Over Arbitron System,” MSNBC, December 16, 2007.

Brooks Barnes and Emily Steel, “Lagging online, TV stations get moving,” Wall Street Journal, April 11, 2007.

Brooks Barnes, “Slowing Economy Posing Test for Disney,” New York Times, November 13, 2007.

Brooks Barnes, “A Made-for-TV Boss Helps Revive ABC,” New York Times, October 7, 2007.

Brooks Barnes, “Disney Acquires Web Site for Children,” New York Times, August 2, 2007.

David Bauder, “Data Says 2.5 Million Less Watching TV,” Associated Press, May 8, 2007.

David Bauder, “2nd place a new world for Brian Williams,” Associated Press, June 24, 2007.

David Bauder, “Nielsen TV Ratings: Top Rated TV Shows News Does Well for CBS, ABC Ratings,” Associated Press, January 9, 2008.

Anne Becker, “René Syler to Leave CBS’ Early Show,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 4, 2006.

Anne Becker, “CBS Launches YouTube Channel, “Broadcasting & Cable, October 18, 2006.

Anne Becker, “ABC News Cutting 35, Moving Assets to Digital,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 22, 2007.

Lee B. Becker, et al., “2006 Annual Survey of Journalism & Mass Communication Graduates,” Grady College of Journalism & Mass Communication, August 10, 2007.

Sharon Begley. “The Truth About Denial,” Newsweek, April 16, 2007.

“Belo to Create Separate Television and Newspaper Businesses,” press release, October 1, 2007.

BIA Financial Network database, station updates through August 31, 2007.

“BIA Financial Network Reports $22.2 billion in 2007 TV Revenues; Predicts 11% growth in 2008 due to strong political year that will affect specific DMA markets,” BIA Press Release, January 10, 2008.

“American Newspapers and the Internet: Threat or Opportunity,” The Bivings Group, July 19, 2007.

“Disney Profits Double on Strong DVD Sales of ‘Cars’ and ‘Pirates’” Bloomberg News, February 8, 2007.

David Blum, “The Struggle at 60,” Columbia Journalism Review, May/June 2005.

Corey Boles, “FCC Grants 42 Waivers from Cross-Ownership Rule,” Free Press, December 17, 2007.

Corey Boles, “FCC Plan on Media Ownership May Ease Tribune Deal,” Wall Street Journal, November 13, 2007.

Brooks Boliek, “Digital TV divide in the air,” Hollywood Reporter, January 31, 2008.

“HD Marketing 2010: Sharpening the Conversation,” Booz|Allen|Hamilton, October 7, 2008.

“What Local Media Web Sites Earn: 2007 Survey,” Borrell Associates, June 2007.

James Boyle, “New Economy: Year in Review,” Financial Times, January 1, 2008.

Karen Breslau. “The Green Giant,” Newsweek, April 16, 2007.

Bridge Ratings, “Digital Media Growth Predictions,” April 25, 2007.

Bridge Ratings, “Bridge Ratings Industry Update – Internet Radio Perceptions,” April 18, 2007.

Bridge Ratings, “Digital Media Growth Projections – Updated 4/25/07.”

Bridge Ratings, “Bridge Ratings Industry Update – Internet Radio Perceptions,” April 18, 2007.

Phil Bronstein, Interview with co-author Edmonds, September 2007.

“So Many Ads So Few Clicks,” BusinessWeek, November 12, 2007:

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David Carr, “A Magazine Challenges the Big Boys,” New York Times, November 26, 2007.

Bill Carter, “Is It the Woman Thing, or Is It Katie Couric?” New York Times, May 14, 2007.

Bill Carter, “CBS Producer Goes Around, Comes Around,” New York Times, March 9, 2007.

Bill Carter, “NBC’s ‘Dateline,’ Its Ratings in Decline, Releases Its Longtime Anchor,” New York Times, May 23, 2007.

Bill Carter, “NBC to Offer a Free Video Download Service,” New York Times, September 19, 2007.

Bill Carter, “Staff Reductions at NBC News and CBS,” New York Times, December 15, 2007.

“60 Minutes: Milestones,” CBS News Web site, last accessed January 12, 2008.

“CBS Launches ‘EyeLab,’ an Editing Studio for Creating CBS-Based Content Across Interactive Platforms,” CBS press release, September 28, 2007.

Dawn C. Chmielewski, “CBS aims to be the talk of the Web,” Los Angeles Times, September 20, 2007.

Karl Choi, Merrill Lynch analyst, e-mail to Rick Edmonds, State of the News Media 2008 Newspaper chapter co-author, February 25, 2008.

Chris Churchill, “Is TV Station on the Block?” Times Union ( Albany, N.Y.), February 5, 2008.

Michael Cieply and Brooks Barnes, “Tensions Lower for Coming Actors’ Negotiations,” New York Times, February 11, 2008.

Michael Cieply and Brooks Barnes, “Chief of Universal Finds Success at the Back of the Pack,” New York Times, July 16, 2007.

“U.S. Wireless Subscribership Passes 250 Million Mark,” CTIA press release, November 13, 2007,

“Yahoo Heats Up in Search Ad Race As Google Levels Off,”, October 16, 2007.

“40 Million Spent to Tout Candidates on Iowa TV,”, January 1, 2008:

Noam Cohen, “The Latest on Virginia Tech, From Wikipedia,” New York Times, April 23, 2007.

Patricia Cohen, “Magazine Voices Doubt Over ‘Diary’ From Iraq,” New York Times, December 4, 2007.

“comScore Study Reveals That Mobile TV Currently Most Popular Among Males and Younger Age Segments,” comScore press release, April 23, 2007.

“Google Sites Ranked by comScore as Top U.S. Video Property in March 2007,” comScore press release, June 4, 2007.

“YouTube Continues to Lead U.S. Online Video Market with 28 Percent Market Share, According to comScore Video Metrix,” comScore press release, November 30, 2007.

“Major Social Networking Sites Substantially Expanded Their Global Visitors Base During Past Year,” comScore press release, July 31, 2007.

“Google Sites Ranked by comScore as Top U.S. Video Property in March 2007,” comScore press release, June 4, 2007.

“comScore Media Metrix Releases Top 50 U.S. Web Rankings for December,” comScore press release, January 15, 2008.

Congressional Research Service Report to Congress: “U.S. Immigration Policy on Asylum Seekers,” May 5, 2005:

“CPB Awards Grants to 85 Public Radio Stations for Transition to Digital Service,” Corporation for Public Broadcasting, August 23, 2006: lease.php?prn=566.

Jon Cote, “Chronicle to Cut 100 Jobs, Union Says,” San Francisco Chronicle, May 17, 2007.

Anthony Crupi, “Buyers Debate C3 Ratings,” MediaWeek, November 16, 2007:

Dean Culbreath, “Nine Copley Papers in Ohio, Illinois, Sold for $350 Million,” San Diego Union Tribune,” March 14, 2007.

“Washington Post to reduce paper staff, increase web focus,”, November 16, 2006.

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Rebecca Dana, “CBS Creates ‘EyeLab’ To Woo Web Surfers,” the Wall Street Journal, September 28, 2007.

Eric Deggans, “Media Exec Gets Cold Shoulder From Chicago,” St. Petersburg Times, August 19, 2007: m/2007/08/19/Features/Media_exec_gets_cold_.shtml.

Michael J. de la Merced, “Times Company Forms Alliance With Job-Listing Web Site,” New York Times, February 15, 2007.

“Yahoo! deal impact could be greater than expected,” Deutsche Bank Securities Inc., September 21, 2007.

Glen Dickson and Robin Berger, “In News, Money Talks,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 13, 2007.

Glen Dickson, “Newsrooms Go Multiplatform,” Broadcasting & Cable, March 26, 2007.

Glen Dickson, “ Mobile TV Takes Flight,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 12, 2007

Jennifer Dorrah, “The End of the Affair,” AJR, August-September 2007.

“Video Ad Benchmark: Average Campaign Performance Metrics,” DoubleClick, February 2007.

“XM/C-SPAN to Launch First National Radio Channel Dedicated to the Presidential Election,” Drudge Report, May 21, 2007.

Marcelo Duran, “Study shows video playing big role for newspaper sites,” Newspapers & Technology, September 2007.

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“More than a game,” Economist, December 4, 2007.

Economist, February 20, 2008.

“Social graph-iti,” Economist, October 18, 2007.

2007 Editor & Publisher International Yearbook, 87th Edition.

Rick Edmonds, “What’s Next For Newspaper Next,” Poynter Online, November 13, 2007.

Rick Edmonds, “An Online Rescue for Newspapers,” Poynter Online, January 27, 2005.

Rick Edmonds, “The New Bottom Line: 25 Percent Online Revenue by 2011,” June 23, 2006

Rick Edmonds, “Newsroom Staff Cuts: Selective Pain,” Poynter Online, June 11, 2007.

Andrew Edwards, “Lincoln Sells TV, Radio Stations for $683 million,” Wall Street Journal, November 12, 2007

John Eggerton, “Dorgan, Obama, Other Sens. Move to Block FCC Media-Ownership Vote,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 8, 2007.

John Eggerton, “DTV-Education Campaign Values at $697M: NAB,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 15, 2007.

John Eggerton, “Stations, Cable ‘Dual’ Over Carriage,” Broadcasting & Cable, September 10, 2007.

John Eggerton, “Complete Deal, Divestiture of 50 Medium and Smaller Market Stations,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 10, 2008.

John Eggerton, “Univision Republican Debate Outdraws Hispanic Network’s Democratic Forum,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 10, 2007: http://www.broad

Sarah Ellison and Jennifer S. Forsyth, “Zell Wins Tribune in Bid to Revive Media Empire,” Wall Street Journal, April 3, 2007.

“Internet Usage and Importance Expand,” eMarketer, July 2, 2007.

eMarketer, using historical data from the International Telecommunication Union as a baseline: All/Emarketer_2000413.aspx?src=report_head_info_sitesearch

“Podvertising,” eMarketer, February 23, 2007.

“Online Ad Spending to Reach $42B by 2011,” eMarketer, November 7, 2007.

“Online Video Ad Spending to Surge 89% in 2007,” eMarketer, November 6, 2006.

“Fifty Percent of US Population Will Watch Online Video in 2008,” eMarketer, July 25, 2007.

“Heard the Latest About Podcasting?,” eMarketer, February 4, 2008.

Karen Everhart, “Newsrooms Try ‘Public Insight’ Tool,” Current Magazine, August 13, 2007.

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Shahira Fahmy, “Retooling the News Approach: Online News Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Current & Future Journalism Skills,” AEJMC, 2007.

Paul Farhi, “Don Imus Gingerly Steps Back on the Air,” Washington Post, December 4, 2007.

“The Newspaper/Broadcast Cross-Ownership Prohibition (1975),” Federal Communications Commission Consumer Facts:

“Broadband Connectivity Competition Policy,” Federal Trade Commission Staff Report, June 2007

Mark Fitzgerald, “Reflections on ‘Rumbo’,” Marketing y Medios, February 5, 2007:

Toni Fitzgerald, “These days, it’s Sundays with George,” Media Life, January 10, 2008.

Matthew Flamm, “Digitally Challenged Time Inc. Past Prime?” Crain’s New York, August 18, 2007.

Lucinda Fleeson, “Bureau of Missing Bureaus,” American Journalism Review, October/November 2003.

Franklin Foer, “Fog of War,” The New Republic, December 2007.

David Folkenflik, “Circulation Fraud at Tribune Papers Triggers Arrests,”, June 15, 2005:

“The World’s 2,000 Largest Public Companies,”, March 29, 2007.

Mark Fratrik, “Five Reasons Why TV Stations Are a Good Buy,” BIA Perspectives (Newsletter), August 3, 2007.

Kevin Freking, “Drug spending raises US health care tab,” Associated Press, January 8, 2008.

Wayne Friedman, “Nielsen: Obama, Romney Aired Most TV Spots in ’07,” MediaPost, December 12, 2007

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Diane Garrett, “DVD sales down 3.6% in ’07,” Variety, January 7, 2008.

Brian Garrity, “Clear Channel Launches Social Networking Sites,” Billboard Biz, April 30, 2007.

“GateHouse Announces Third Quarter 2007 Results and Fourth Quarter Dividend,” GateHouse press release, November 13, 2007.

“Invest and Deliver,” GE 2006 Annual Report, February 9, 2007.

“GE Reports Third-Quarter Net EPS up 15% to $.54 per Share and Continuing EPS up 9% to $.50 per Share; Orders of $24 billion, up 20%; Revenues of $42.5 billion, up 12%; Reaffirms Total Year 2007 Guidance,” GE press release, October 12, 2007.

Michele Gershberg, “Cumulus Media Agrees to $1.3 Billion Buyout,” Reuters, July 23, 2007.

David Giantasio, “Publicis’ Net Income up 15%,” AdWeek, February 28, 2007.

David Giantasio, “WPP’s Revenue, Profit up in ’06,” AdWeek, February 23, 2007.

Dan Gillmor, “We the Media,” O’Reilly, 204, pages xvi-xviii.

Paul Ginocchio, “Newspaper Circulation, Deutsche Bank Securities analyst’s report, November 6, 2007.

Paul Ginocchio, “”Yahoo Deal Impact Could Be Greater Than Expected,” Deutsche Bank Securities analyst’s report, September 21, 2007.

Paul Ginocchio, “Don’t Believe the Hype, Some of the Downturn is Cyclical,” Deutsche Bank Securities analyst’s report, July 20, 2007.

Mark Glaser, “Sunlight Foundation Mixes Tech, Citizen Journalism to Open Congress,” MediaShift, April 4, 2007.

Mark Glaser, “News Sites Loosen Linking Policies,” Online Journalism Review, September 17, 2003.

Mark Glaser, “Dan Gillmor Finds His Center,” MediaShift, January 31, 2006.

David Goetzl, “DVR Data Begins to Have Impact, Top Shows Get a Boost,” Media Daily News, March 1, 2006.

David Goetzl, “LIN TV: Builds Biz, Doesn’t Sell,” MediaPost, December 10, 2007.

David Goetzl, “GE Sees Light: NBCU Upfront Speeds Turnaround,” Media Daily News, July 16, 2007.

Matea Gold, the Los Angeles Times, November 14, 2007.

“Google Announces Third Quarter 2007 Results,” Google press release, October 18, 2007.

Google advertising tool AdWords:

2006 Google Annual Report.

Paul J. Gough, “A longer ‘Today’ gets many OKs,” the Hollywood Reporter, April 12, 2007.

Paul J. Gough, “NBC News cuts 15-20 jobs,” the Hollywood Reporter, December 7, 2007.

Paul J. Gough, “ABC News opening one-man foreign bureaus,” the Hollywood Reporter, October 3, 2007; and “ABC News opening one-man foreign bureaus,” Reuters, October 3, 2007.

Paul J. Gough, “NBC partners with print reporters for ’08 race,” the Hollywood Reporter, July 17, 2007.

Jeff Graff, “Fight for the Top of the World,” Time Magazine, October 1, 2007.

Jefferson Graham, “Huffington’s vision prospers on blog,” USA Today, September 25, 2007.

Roy Greenslade, “’Economic Realities’ Behind Job Losses at USA Today,” The Guardian, November 16, 2007.

Michele Greppi, “FCC Ruling Keeps Local Broadcast Stations on Analog Cable after Digital Transition,” September 12, 2007

Michelle Greppi, “CBS Sells Seven Local Stations for $185 Million,” TV Week, February 6, 2007.

Vanessa Grigoriadis, “Everybody Sucks,” New York Magazine, October 15, 2007.

Guy Griml, “AOL snapping up Internet ad startup Quigo for $300m,”, November 3, 2007.

Shankar Gupta, “UBS Forecasts Up to 45% Yahoo Revenue Boost from Panama,” MediaPost, February 23, 2007

Marisa Guthrie, “Stations Kill ‘Live at Five,’ ” Broadcasting & Cable, September 10, 2007.

Mariss Guthrie, “Will Give-Backs Become Contagious?” by Broadcasting and Cable, December 17, 2007:

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Joe Hagan, “Alas, Poor Couric,” New York, July 12, 2007.

Shirin Hakimzadeh and D’Vera Cohn, “English Usage Among Hispanics in the United States,” Pew Hispanic Center, November 29, 2007.

Hall’s Report, January 2007-December 2007

Saul Hansell, “Falco Prepares Another Layoff: the AOL Brand,” New York Times, October 17, 2007

“One-Third of Frequent YouTube Users Are Watching Less TV to Watch Videos Online,” Harris Interactive press release, January 29, 2007.

“Four in Five of All U.S. Adults — An Estimated 178 Million — Go Online,” the Harris Poll, November 5, 2007.

Kim Hart, “For Local News Site, Model Just Didn’t Click,” Washington Post, January 15, 2007.

Louis Hau, “Portal Problems,”, September 18, 2007.

Patrick Healy, “ Iowa Saturated by Political Ads,” New York Times, December 28, 2007.

Miguel Helft and Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Little Room for Yahoo to Maneuver,” New York Times, February 14, 2007.

Miguel Helft, “Ad Growth for AOL Called Vital to a Remake,” New York Times, August 20, 2007.

Miguel Helft and Steve Lohr, “176 Newspapers to Form a Partnership with Yahoo,” New York Times, November 20, 2006.

Jon Hemingway, “Credit Crunch Slows Media Deals,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 8, 2007.

Jon Hemingway, “Sinclair Retransmission-Consent Deals Boost Q3 Revenue,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 31, 2007.

Mark Hertsgaard, “The Global Warming Survival Guide” and “On the Front Lines of Climate Change,” Time, April 9, 2007.

Scott Hillis, “Apple affirms iPhone target,” Reuters, February 27, 2008

Matthew Hindman, 2007, “Political Accountability and the Web’s Missing Middle,” paper prepared for presentation at the Princeton Conference on Changing Media and Political Accountability, adapted from his forthcoming book, “The Myth of Digital Democracy,” Princeton University Press.

“Google Received 64 Percent of U.S. Searches in October,” Hitwise, November 19, 2007.


Jim Hopkins, “ lets readers talk to the blog,” USA Today, September 18, 2007.

Terry Horne, “A Message From the Publisher on Changes at the Register,” and comments,, February 1, 2008.

“Study Tracks Broadband Video Consumption on Multiple Platforms; Six in Ten Internet Users Watch Online Video Content Weekly, Up 36% From Last Year,” Horowitz Associates press release, December 4, 2007.

Jeff Howe, “Did Assignment Zero Fail? A Look Back, and Lessons Learned,” Wired, July 16, 2007.

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Erica Iacono, “African-American Press Retains Influence,” PRWeek, March 14, 2007: erican-press-retains-influence/article/56625/.

Inside Radio, Radio Book, 2006-2007.

Interactive Advertising Bureau Internet Advertising Revenue Report first half of 2007:

“Internet Advertising Revenues Continue to Soar, Reach Nearly $10 Billion in First Half of ’07,” Interactive Advertising Bureau, October 4, 2007.

The Interpublic Group of Companies, 2008 Annual Report:

Nat Ives, “Chrysler CEO says Ad Spending Unlikely to Increase,” Advertising Age, October 29, 2007:

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Meg James, “Nielsen to expand its TV sample,” Los Angeles Times, September 27, 2007.

Jeff Jarvis, “Gannett explodes the newsroom,” blog, November 5, 2006.

Elizabeth Jensen, “An NPR Program Aims to Awaken a Younger Crowd,” New York Times, September 27, 2007.

Peter Johnson, “Coach: Team Accepts Imus Apology,” USA Today, April 12, 2007.

Peter Johnson, “NBC to Take ‘Today” into a fourth hour this fall,” USA Today, January 16, 2007.

“Journal Register Agrees to Sell Massachusetts Newspapers,” December 1, 2006.

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Abbey Klaassen, “Economics 101: Web Giants Rule ‘Democratized’ Medium,” Advertising Age, April 8, 2007.

Abbey Klaassen, “Web-video vaults are full, coffers are not; Absence of ad model hobbling growth,” Advertising Age, February 19, 2007.

Tameka Kee, “Connected Consumers Love Web 2.0. But Not on Mobile,” MediaPost, October 3, 2007.

Tameka Kee, “Yahoo Gaining in Search Dollar Share: RBC,” MediaPost, October 16, 2007.

Keith J. Kelly, “Newsweek Gets a New Look in Print, on Web,” the New York Post, October 13, 2007.

John Ketzenberger, “Drumbeat Sounds Anew for Emmis Buyout Deal,” the Indianapolis Star, October 30, 2007.

Staci D. Kramer, “Updated: CBS Interactive Trims Staff, Cuts at,,”, December 14, 2007.

Adam Kushner, “Interview with John Morton,” IFRA Magazine, December 2007.

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Stephen Labaton, “Few Friends for the Proposal on Media,” New York Times, November 13, 2007.

Paul R. La Monica. “The World Cup’s GOOOOOOOOALLLL!”, February 1, 2006:

Paul R. La Monica, “Politics: Off Year, On the Money,”, June 25, 2007.

Paul R. La Monica, “CBS’ Imus Problem,”, April 13, 2007

Paul R. La Monica, “NBC must see some sales growth,”, April 13, 2007.

La Opinión 2008 Media Kit:

Latino Print Network: State of Hispanic Print, 2006:

Peter Lauria, “Peacock Purge,” the New York Post, December 6, 2007.

Charles Layton, “The Video Explosion,” American Journalism Review, December/January 2008.

C.N. Le, “The 1965 Immigration Act,” Asian-Nation: The Landscape of Asian America:

Michael Learmonth, “Network launches user-generated video show,” Variety, May 28, 2007

Amanda Lenhart, et al, “Teens and Social Media,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, December 19, 2007.

Amanda Lenhart and Susannah Fox, “Bloggers,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 19, 2006.

Kenneth Li, “NBC Universal Removes YouTube Channel,” Reuters, October 22, 2007.

Kenneth Li, “CBS to invest in virtual designer Electric Sheep,” Reuters, February 26, 2007.

Jack Loechner, “Men 18 to 34 Years Old Are Key Online Video Viewers,” Center for Media Research, February 27, 2007.

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Robert MacMillan, “Future may be murky for Yahoo and newspaper alliance,” Reuters, October 11, 2007.

Mary Madden and Susannah Fox, “Riding the Waves of “Web 2.0,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, October 5, 2006.

Magazine Publishers of America. Magazine Digital Initiatives 2007:

Elisabeth Malkin, “ Mexico’s Newest TV Drama is a Bid to Block a Third Broadcaster,” New York Times, December 6, 2006:

Miami-Dade County’s “Population at a Glance”:

Michael Malone, “Retransmission stalemate: no end in sight,” Broadcasting & Cable, December 10, 2007.

Michael Malone, “Heavy Layoffs at Young Broadcasting,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 13, 2008.

Michael Malone, “Stations Battle for Best Picture,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 26, 2007.

Michael Malone, “Hearst-Argyle Launches More YouTube Channels,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 1, 2007.

Joe Mandese , “Media Deals Set New Record, First 9 Months Top All of ’06,” MediaPost, October 3, 2007.

Joe Mandese. “SMG eyes ‘Agency of the Future,’ Expands Creative Services Role, Media Daily News,” December 19, 2007.

Joe Mandese, “Online Ad Growth Rate Ebbs in Q3, But Continues to Outpace All Major Media,” MediaPost, November 12, 2007.

Merissa Marr, “Updated Offers Networking for Kids,” the Wall Street Journal, January 2, 2007.

Pilar Marrero, La Opinión, June 29, 2007. “Voz de Mayoria Importo Poco; El Discurso antiinmigrante se impuso en el debate.”

Kevin J. Martin, “The Daily Show,” New York Times, November 13, 2007.

Caroline McCarthy, “Digg, CBS Interactive team up for political coverage,”, January 8, 2008.

McClatchy Washington Bureau, Nov. 30, 2007:

Mediamark Research, “Magazine Audience Estimates” 2007.

“MediaMark, DJG Marketing and WRSS to Test Passive Measurement of Magazine Readership in Public Places,” Mediamark Research and Intelligence Press Release, December 3, 2007.

“Super Bowl Slots Nearly Sold Out,” Media Week, December 15, 2006:

Diane Mermigas, “Election Ad Spend: TV Profits, But Times Are A’Changing,” MediaPost, October 24, 2007.

W. Davis Merritt, Knightfall, AMACON (American Management Association), 2005, P. 224.

Brian Morrissey, “In-Stream Ads Annoy Web Viewers,” AdWeek, October 31, 2006.

“Who we are,” Web site, last accessed January 20, 2008.

“Setting the Record Straight,”, September 11, 2007.

M Street Directory 1989-1999.

“DVRs Nested in One-in-Five Homes, Survey Says,” Multichannel News, August 21, 2007.

“Univision’s Uva Eye’s $1 Retransmissions-Consent Fees,” Multichannel News, March 16, 2007

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NBC News /Wall Street Journal poll, conducted by Hart and Newhouse Research Companies, April 20-23, 2007. Gallup Poll, December 18-20, 2006.

The Ethnic Media in America: The Giant Hidden in Plain Sight, question “Which media do African Americans Rely on More Heavily for News on Politics and Government?” New California Media, June 6, 2005.

Newspaper Association of America, “Online Newspaper Advertising Growth Continues,” NAA press release, November 20, 2007. Newspaper Association of America, “Trends and Numbers,” at

Newspaper Association of America, “Online Newspaper Viewership Reaches Record in 2007,” NAA press release, January 24, 2008.

Newspaper Association of America, “Newspaper Web Sites Continue to Expand Medium’s Footprint,” NAA press release, October 31, 2007.

Newspaper Association of America, “Newspaper Classified Advertising Expenditures,” cited in the Project for Excellence in Journalism’s State of the News Media 2007.

“NBC News/ and New York Times/ Announce Collaboration on Political Coverage and National Political Content for the 2008 Campaign,” New York Times Company press release, July 30, 2007.

“The New York Times Company Reports 2007 Third-Quarter Results,” New York Times Company press release, October 23, 2007:

“Online Newspaper Blog Traffic Grows 210 Percent Year Over Year, According to Nielsen//NetRatings,” Nielsen//Net Ratings press release, January 17, 2008.

Nielsen Online @plan, Winter 2007/2008, courtesy of the CBS Corp.

2007 Nielsen Media Research.
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“OECD Broadband Statistics to June 2007,”, February 20, 2008.

Gavin O’Malley, “Podvertising to Grow Fivefold, But Remain Niche,” Online Media Daily, February 26, 2007

Gavin O’Malley, “CBS ‘EyeLab’ Will Give Consumers Bite-Sized Clips,” MediaPost, October 1, 2007.

Gavin O’Malley, “Borell: Local Online Ads Climb 31.6% This Year,” June 5, 2007.

Gavin O’Malley, “CBS Pays $10 Million for Celebrity Blog,” Online Media Daily, October 12, 2007.

“Omnicom Reports 2006 Fourth Quarter and Year End Results,” Omnicom Press release, Feb. 13, 2007:

Michael Oneal and Susan Chandler, “Boardroom Brawl Roils Tribune,” Chicago Tribune, June 15, 2007

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Robert Papper, RTNDA/Ball State University Annual News Director Survey “Net Worth,” RTNDA Communicator, May 2007.

Robert Papper, “Seize the Pay,” RTNDA Communicator, June 2007, P. 18.

Robert Papper, RTNDA/Ball State University Annual News Director Survey, “News, Staffing and Profitability,” RTNDA Communicator, October 2007.

Robert Papper, RTNDA/Ball State University Annual News Director Survey, “Where the Jobs Are,” RTNDA Communicator, June 2006.

PBS press release, November 20, 2007.

Jeffrey S. Passel, “Growing Share of Immigrants Choosing Naturalization,” Pew Hispanic Center, March 28, 2007.

“News Media Internal Auditors Interactive Media Audit Perspectives,” presented by Mike Pearl, partner, PricewaterhouseCoopers, August 2007.

Adam L. Penenberg, “Google News: Beta Not Make Money,” Wired, September 29, 2004.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Paper Cuts,” New York Times, February 7, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “A Venerable Magazine Energizes Its Web Site,” New York Times, January 21, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “New York Times Plans to Cut 100 Newsroom Jobs,” New York Times, February 14, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Times to End Charges on Web Site,” New York Times, September 18, 2007.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Wall St. Journal to Continue Its Charges for Web Content,” New York Times, January 25, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “For Publishers in Los Angeles, Cuts and Worse,” New York Times, February 19, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Times and CNBC to Share Material on Web Sites,” New York Times, January 7, 2008.

Richard Pérez-Peña, “Times to Stop Charging for Parts of Its Web Site,” New York Times, September 18, 2007.

Jeremy W. Peters, “Viacom Sues Google Over YouTube Video Clips,” New York Times, March 14, 2007.

Laurie Petersen, “AOL + Tacoda: You’ve Got Scale,” MediaPost, July 25, 2007.

Laurie Petersen, “NBC Universal/News Corp. Create Network To Distribute and Monetize Online Content,” Online Media Daily, March 23, 2007.

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“The American Community – Asians: 2004,” American Community Survey Reports, Pew Hispanic Center, February 2007.

“A Statistical Portrait of the Foreign-Born Population at Mid-Decade,” Pew Hispanic Center, Table 11: /reports/foreignborn/.

“Online Video,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, July 25, 2007.

“Why We Don’t Know Enough About Broadband in the US,” Pew Internet & American Life Project:

“Teens and Social Media,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, December 19, 2007.

“Why Change the Channel?” Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, June 20, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Views of Press Values and Performance: 1985-2007,” August 9, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Pew Weekly News Interest Index Poll, October 12, 2007.

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Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, Pew Weekly News Interest Index Poll, May 23, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Internet’s Broader Role in Campaign 2008,” January, 11, 2008. Based on polling conducted December 19-30, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Today’s Journalists Less Prominent,” March 8, 2007.

Pew Internet & American Life Project, “Demographics of Internet Users,”, and “Daily Interest Activities”:

Pew Internet & American Life Project, “ Why We Don’t Know Enough About Broadband in the U.S”:

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Views of Press Values and Performance: 1985-2007,” August 9, 2007.

18. Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Internet’s Broader Role in Campaign 2008,” January, 11, 2008. Based on polling conducted December 19-30, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Views of Press Values and Performance: 1985-2007,” August 9, 2007.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Internet’s Broader Role in Campaign 2008.,” Q43, banner C.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “Views of Press Values and Performance: 1985-2007,” August 9, 2007.Also, Pew Weekly News Interest Index Poll, November 9, 2007.

PEJ, “Journalists in Iraq: A Survey of Reporters on the Front Lines.”

Pew Research Center for the People & Press, January Political Survey, Final Topline, January 9-13, 2008,

Pew Research Center for the People & Press, January Political Survey, Final Topline, January 9-13, 2008:

Eric Pfanner, “Financial Times Will Allow More Free Access to Web Site,” New York Times, October 1, 2007.

Podcast Alley,, January 15, 2008.

Mary Ellen Podmolik, “No. 6 Meet the Press,” BtoB: The Magazine for Marketing Strategists, May 7, 2007.

Therese Poletti, “Are we in the midst of “Bubble 2.0?,” MarketWatch, October 26, 2007.

“Morris Sells News Chief, 16 Other Papers,”, October 24, 2007.

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LeeAnn Prescott, “Hitwise US News & Media Report,” Hitwise, April 2007.

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Project for Excellence in Journalism, “Journalists in Iraq: A Survey of Reporters on the Front Lines.”

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“The Latest News Headlines —Your Vote Counts,” Project for Excellence in Journalism, September 12, 2007.

Local TV News Projects, 1998–2002, Project for Excellence in Journalism, (

Annual State of the News Media reports, 2004-2007, Project for Excellence in Journalism.

Publishers Information Bureau report, January 2007-December 2007 vs. 2006.

Publishers Information Bureau Revenue & Ad pages by Category 2007:

Publishers Information Bureau. Revenue & Pages by Magazine Titles (Quarterly):

Jim Puzzanghera, “Bad reviews pile up for FCC chief’s plan,” Los Angeles Times, November 19, 2007.

Jim Puzzanghera, “Millions may miss the digital TV deadline,” Los Angeles Times, March 28, 2007.

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“Internet Streaming Close to Becoming a Fully Mobile Media,” Radio Business Report, November 16, 2007.

“Arbitron to Delay PPM Rollout in NYC, LA, Chicago, San Francisco and Dallas,” Radio Business Report, November 27, 2007.

“Hanson Addresses FAQ’s about Royalty Rate Decision,” Radio and Internet Newsletter, March 2, 2007.

Lee Rainie and Bill Tancer, “36% of online American adults consult Wikipedia,” Pew Internet & American Life Project, April 2007.

“NBC Universal’s Zucker dismisses sale,” October 29, 2007, Reuters.

“Digital developments could be tipping point for MP3,” Reuters, December 3, 2007.

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J. Max Robins, “2.0 Minus 700,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 23, 2006

J. Max Robins, “New, Old Media Team Up,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 4, 2007.

Jim Romenesko, “Taking Charge of Our Future” (Harte memo), January 22, 2008.

Phil Rosenthal, “Couric feeling more at ease,” Chicago Tribune, April 22, 2007.

Phil Rosenthal, “Homogenized Radio Stations Bottle Up Growth,” Chicago Tribune, November 11, 2007.

Phil Rosenthal, “NBC looks to resuscitate Oxygen,” Chicago Tribune, October 10, 2007.

Brian Ross and Vic Walter, “To Catch a Predator: a Sting Gone Bad,” Dateline, September 7, 2007.

Randall Rothenberg, “Facebook’s Flop,” Wall Street Journal, December 14, 2007:

Evelyn M. Rusli, “Sirius About A Merger,” November 13, 2007.

Cristine Russell, “Covering Controversial Science: Improving Reporting on Science and Public Policy,” Joan Shorenstein Center, Harvard University, 2006.

Stephanie Antonian Rutherford, “Can Newspapers Survive in a Digital World?,” Battle Creek Examiner, January 11, 2008.

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“60 Minutes,” August 17, 2003,

Alvin P. Sanoff, U.S. News & World Report, June 9, 1980.

Erik Sass, “LA Times Unveils New Web Strategy,” MediaPost Publications, January 25, 2007.

Erik Sass, “Dear Arbitron: Radio Industry Letter Delivers Broadside,” MediaPost, November 15, 2007.

Erik Sass, “Radio Buys: Cumulus Acquired by Private Equity,” MediaPost, July 24, 2007.

“Scarborough Newspaper Audience Ratings Report 2007,” Scarborough Research, April 24, 2007.

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Amy Schatz and Corey Boles, “FCC Votes to End Media Ownership Rules,” Wall Street Journal, December 19, 2007.

Michael Schneider, “Fox drops TV stations for Dow bid,” Variety, June 13, 2007.

Nelson D. Schwartz, “Is G.E. Too Big for Its Own Good?” New York Times, July 22, 2007.

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Steve Secklow and Martin Peers, “Murdoch’s Role as Proprietor, Journalist and Plans for Dow Jones,” Wall Street Journal, June 6, 2007.

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Molly Selvin, “Challenge Authority If You Dare,” Los Angeles Times, February 5, 2008.

Donna Shaw, “Really Local,” American Journalism Review, April/May 2007.

Mike Shields, “CBS to Stream on YouTube,” MediaWeek, October 9, 2006.

Annys Shin, the Washington Post, March 18, 2004.

Gail Shister, “CBS evening blues,” the Philadelphia Inquirer, April 23, 2007.

David Sifry, “The State of the Live Web,” April 2007: www.

Richard Siklos and Andrew Ross Sorkin, “Murdoch Offers $5 Billion Bid for Dow Jones,” New York Times, August 2, 2007.

Richard Siklos, “News Corp. and NBC in Web Deal,” New York Times, March 23, 2007.

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Erika D. Smith, “Emmis Again Urged to Go Private,” The Indianapolis Star, October 25, 2007.

Greg Smith, chief operating officer of Neo@Ogilvy, a digital media offshoot of Ogilvy & Mather Worldwide.

Emily Steel, “ to Retain Subscription Component,” Wall Street Journal, January 25, 2008.

Jacques Steinberg, “Charles Gibson’s ‘World News’ Gets Rare Ratings Victory,” New York Times, February 14, 2007.

Jacques Steinberg, “A ‘Today’ at a Time, Until Finally She Has a Year,” New York Times, September 11, 2007.

Jacques Steinberg, “An Early Show Exit,” New York Times, November 29, 2007.

Brian Stelter, “MSNBC to Acquire a Chattier News Site,” New York Times, October 8, 2007.

Brian Stelter, “ABC Reshapes the Evening News for the Web,” New York Times, October 12, 2007.

Brian Stelter, “ABC News and Facebook in Joint Effort to Bring Viewers Closer to Political Coverage,” New York Times, November 26, 2007.

Brian Stelter, “‘To Catch a Predator’ Is Falling Prey to Advertisers’ Sensibilities,” New York Times, August 27, 2007.

Brian Stelter. “In Foray into TV, Google is to Track Ad Audiences,” New York Times, October 24, 2007:

Brian Stelter, “At NBC, the Brand Becomes a Slogan,” New York Times, November 5, 2007.

Richard Stengel, “A Changing TIME,” Time, January 6, 2007.

Carl Sessions Stepp, “Transforming the Architecture,” AJR, October-November, 2007.

Brad Stone and Matt Richtel, “ Silicon Valley Start-Ups Awash in Dollars, Again,” New York Times, October 17, 2007.

Brad Stone, “Equity Firm Invests in NBC Universal-News Corp. Online Venture,” New York Times, August 9, 2007.

Louise Story, “How Many Site Hits? Depends Who’s Counting,” New York Times, October 22, 2007.

Louise Story, “Another Step for a Remade AOL,” New York Times, November 8, 2007.

Veronis Suhler Stevenson, “Communications Industry Forecast 2007-2011.”

Seth Sutel, “Yahoo adds 17 more newspapers,” Associated Press, November 19, 2007.

Seth Sutel, “New York Times regional papers join Yahoo newspaper group,” Associated Press, November 18, 2007.

“New study shows Americans’ blogging behaviour,” Synovate, August 30, 2007.
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Talkers magazine, “Top Talk Personalities,” October 2007:

Talkers magazine, “The Talk Radio Research Project,”

Dorcas Taylor, “Networks by the Numbers,” American Journalism Review, April/May 2005.

Ira Teinowitz, “Bush Proposes Steep Cuts to PBS Funding,” Television Week, February 5, 2007.

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“NBC Partners with TiVo on Advertising and Research Solutions,” TiVo press release, November 27, 2007:

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Chris Tryhorn, “Dow Jones Signals Local Paper Sell Off,” The Guardian, November 28, 2007.

“CBS Blinks, PublicEye Goes Dormant,” TVNewser, January 2, 2008.

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“Annual Internet Survey by the Center for the Digital Future Finds Shifting Trends Among Adults About the Benefits and Consequences of Children Going Online,” USC Center for Digital Future, January 17, 2008.

Form 10-K for the fiscal year ending December 31, 2006, United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

Form 10-Q for the quarterly period ending September 30, 2007, United States Securities and Exchange Commission.

“Univision ranked as the #1 network with an +11% advantage over its nearest competitor, Fox, and beating ABC by +43%, CBS by +42%, NBC by +57% and fully +125% ahead of CW for all adults 18-34, not just Hispanics,” Univision press release, September 7, 2007.

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Diego Vasquez. “Big Changes for Local Web Advertising,” Media Life Magazine:

“Viacom Files Federal Copyright Infringement Complaint Against YouTube and Google,” Viacom press release, March 13, 2007.

David Vaina, interview conducted for Project for Excellence in Journalism, January 10, 2008.

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W & X

Wall Street Journal, September 13, 2006.

Mark Walsh, “eMarketer: Online Ad Spending Growth to Slow,” MediaPost, February 27, 2007.

Mark Walsh, “Media M&A Slowing in Wake of Credit Crunch,” Online Media Daily, October 31, 2007.

Mark Walsh, “Times Co. Taps Monster for Job Ads,” Online Media Daily, February 15, 2007.

Mark Walsh, “ Adds Blogs, News Feed,” MediaPost, January 8, 2007.

Quote attributed to John Wanamaker:

Washington Post “Investing” column, September 25, 2007.

Washington Post Entrance and Exit Polls, 2008: (Republican) and http://projects.washingtonpost.c om/2008-preside ntial-candidates/primaries/exit-polls/topics/most-important-issue/d/ (Democrats)

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Alex Weprin, “CBS Making 60 Minutes Available as Free Podcast,” Broadcasting and Cable, September 20, 2007.

David B. Wilkerson, “CBS explores radio sales in smaller markets,” MarketWatch, May 23, 2006.

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Yahoo Finance, January 2, 2008.

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Yahoo Annual Report 2006.

“CBS and YouTube Strike Strategic Content and Advertising Partnership,” press release, October 6, 2006.

Jeff Yang, “The AZend,”, January 29, 2008: 8/01/29/apop.DTL.

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Kim Zetter, “Dateline Mole Allegedly at DefCon with Hidden Camera — Updated: Mole Caught on Tape,” Wired, August 3, 2007.

“Zogby Poll: Most Say Bloggers, Citizen Reporters to Play Vital Role in Journalism’s Future,” Zogby International, February 13, 2007.