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Source Bibliography

Source Bibliography

The following list comprises the sources used throughout this report.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W&X | Y | Z


Advertising Age, “100 Leading Media Companies,” Companies are ranked by their total media revenues collected in the U.S. in 2003. Available online at:

Frank Ahrens, “Delays, Low Fines Weaken FCC Attack on Indecency,” Washington Post, November 10, 2005 .

Alternative Weekly Network, “Alternative Weekly Reader Comparison 1995 – 2005”

Alternative Weekly Network demographic data.

American Journalism Review, “Journalism’s Backseat Drivers,” August/September 2005.

American Society of Newspaper Editors, “Newsroom Employment Survey,” Table A, published April 12, 2005 . Available online at:

Chris Anderson, “The New Boom,” Wired, February 2006.

Julia Angwin, Kevin J. Delaney and Peter Grant, “Google, Comcast Seek Piece of AOL,” the Wall Street Journal, October 13, 2005

Julia Angwin and Kevin J. Delaney, “Microsoft Pushes to Seal AOL Advertising Linkup,” the Wall Street Journal, December 7, 2005

Julia Angwin, “Fox quietly gears up its business channel to challenge CNBC,” Wall Street Journal, June 20, 2005 .

Arbitron, “Public Radio Today: How America Listens to Public Radio Stations,” June 13, 2005

Arbitron/Edison Media Research, “Internet and Multimedia 2005: The On-Demand Media Consumer,” March 23, 2005

Arbitron, “Radio Today: How America Listens to Radio, 2005 Edition,” December 22, 2004 .

Tom Ashbrook, “The Assault on NPR,” Boston Globe, May 26, 2006 .

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies member pages.

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies, unpublished circulation figures.

“Broadband Subscriber Growth Slows,” Associated Press, October 17, 2005 .

“Los Angeles Times suspends ‘Wikitorials,’ Associated Press, June 21, 2005 .

AP, “Viacom Details Split Plans,” CBS News Web site, August 5, 2005 .

“AP to launch online video network; Board approves general assessment and licensing plan,” Associated Press press release, July 21, 2005

Douglas Arthur, “Knight Ridder: A Scenario Analysis,” Morgan Stanley, November 29, 2005 . Available online at:

“Google Localizes Online Maps Service,” The Associated Press, October 6, 2005 .

Agence France Presse, “Murdoch’s NewsCorp sees earnings jump,” August 10, 2005 .

Atlanta Business Chronicle, “Cumulus grows with Susquehanna acquisition,” October 31, 2005 .

Eric Auchard, “Web Map Tracks Demand for Major News ,” Reuters, August 18, 2005 .

Audit Bureau of Circulations, publisher’s statements and audit reports for Time, Newsweek, US News and World Report, The New Yorker, The Economist, Jet, The Atlantic, The Week, People, In Touch, The Star

Audit Bureau of Circulations, publisher’s statements for La Opinion, El Diario, El Nuevo Herald.

Ayala, Nancy , “ ‘Rumbo’ secures $18 Million for New Investors,” Marketing y Medios, June 13, 2005 .

Abigail Azote, “Post-Rather, CBS news really sinks,” Media Life Magazine online archives, April 25, 2005

Abigail Azote, “A winter’s chill descends on ‘Nightline,’ ” Media Life, January 26, 2006 .

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Katy Bachman, “Fox Buffs Up Local News,” Media Week, October 10, 2005 .

Katy Bachman, “Mixed News for Houston PPM,” Media, September 20, 2005 .

Katy Bachman, “Clear Channel Applauds Its ‘Less is More’ Initiative,” Billboard Radio Monitor, May 17, 2005 .

Katy Bachman, “TVB: TV ad revenues grew by 12 percent in 2004”, Media Week, March 17, 2005 .

Ben Bagdikian, The Media Monopoly, (Beacon Press: 2000)

Ed Bark, “Alert the media: CNN back to hard news”, Dallas Morning News, June 25, 2005

Jason Bates, EU Broadcasting: Regional Populations Creating Demand, Via Satellite, September 1, 2005

Stephen Battaglio, “New boss in town,” TV Guide, November 30, 2005 .

John Battelle, The Search: How Google and Its Rivals Rewrote the Rules of Business and Transformed Our Culture (Portfolio Hardcover: 2005).

“$80bn Google takes top media spot,” BBC News, June 8, 2005 .

Belo Corp. presentation to CFSB Media Week Investors Conference, December 2005.

Bendixen and Associates for New California Media, The Ethnic Media in America : The Giant Hidden in Plain Sight, June 7, 2005 , p. 11.

Paul Berger, “Get it together: Blog collectives seek to draw ads,” Online Journalism Review, December 9, 2005 .

Jonathon Berr, “Ad spending growth slows; web, cable, Spanish media doing best,” Orlando Sun-Sentinel, September 5, 2005 .

Robert Bianco, “More is Much Less in Revamped ‘Nightline,’ ” USA Today, November 30, 2005 .

BIAfn Press Release, “BIA Financial Network Reports that Hispanic Television Stations Continue to Grow in Numbers and in Shares”, BIA Web site, June 16, 2005 .

BIAfn Press Release, “BIA Financial Network reports on revenue growth of top television station owners over the past four years,” BIA Web site, May 12, 2005 .

BIA Subscription News Commentary, “Upheaval in the Lineup of Local Television Stations,” BIAfn, January 25, 2006

BIAfn TV Industry Overview, 2005.

AP, “Casper Television Stations cancels evening news broadcast,” Billings ( Mont. ) Gazette, January 5, 2006 .

HD Update, “Shut-Off Date Is (Finally) Official”, Broadcasting & Cable, February 9, 2006 .

“NBC Quietly Marks End of an Era,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 1, 2005 .

“Google adds software designed to track success of customers’ ads,” Bloomberg News, November 15, 2005 .

“Microsoft and Associated Press to Join in New Video Distribution,” Bloomberg News, November 10, 2005 .

Hal Bodeker, “Solar power: Local stations and networks are tapping into the energy of the morning-news hours,” Orlando Sentinel, September 7, 2005 .

“What Local Web Sites Earn: 2005 Survey,” Borrell Associates Inc., March 2005.

“N.Y. Times circulation plummets in Big Apple,” The Boston Herald, January 12, 2006 .

Broadcasting & Cable, “PTC Drives Spike in Smut Gripes,” November 14, 2005 .

Merrill Brown, “I Webbed the news today – oh boy!” Seattle Times, September 11, 2005 .

Sandy Brown, “Google Does Web Another Favor,”, December 20, 2005 .

Rick E. Bruner, “The Decade in Online Advertising, 1994-2004,”, April 2005.

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Pete Carey, “Knight Ridder said to urge cuts” Contra Costa Times, January 25, 2006 .

Carnegie Corporation of New York , “Use of Sources for News.” Available online at:

Bill Carter, “Amid Rumors, ‘Today’ Marks 10 Years as Weekly Ratings King,” New York Times, December 8, 2005 .

Bill Carter, ‘Ted Koppel and Crew to Join Discovery,” New York Times, Jan. 5, 2006 .

Steve Case, “It’s Time to Take It Apart,” the Washington Post, December 11, 2005 .

CBS Corporation Company Profile, online at:

Center for Digital Democracy, “Broadcast Lobby’s Indecent Posture: Asking for Big Public Hand-out,” Market Watch, April 26, 2004 . Online:

Center for the Digital Future at the USC Annenberg School , “Fifth Study by the Digital Future Project Finds Major New Trends in Online Use for Political Campaigns,” December 7, 2005 . Available online at:

Center for the Digital Future at the USC Annenberg School , unpublished data, January 2006.

Center for the Media Research, “18-24 Year Olds Most Influenced by New Media,” July 11, 2005 .

Center For Media Research, “Critical Mass Podcasting Expected by 2010,” December 8, 2005 .

Center for the Media Research, “Media Habits of Affluent Adults,” February 22, 2005 .

Renee Chen, Esther Thorson and Stephen Lacy, “The Impact of Newsroom Investment on Newspaper Revenues and Profits at Small and Medium Newspapers, 1998-2002,” Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly, Autumn 2005.

“ Cincinnati newspaper agreement will not be renewed after 2007,” Cincinnati Post, January 16, 2004 .

ClickZ, “Internet Penetration: Critical Mass, Then What?” July 6, 2005 . Available online at:, “Poll: Most Americans unfamiliar with blogs,” March 3, 2005 .

“Online ad sales soaring, report says,” CNN/Money, November 16, 2005 . Available online at:

GE Profile on the Columbia Journalism Review’s “Who Owns What” (,

comScore Networks, “ Advertisers Take Note: Internet Streaming Video Now Reaches More Mature Audiences,” December 1, 2005 .

Jim Conaghan, “Outlook 2006,” Presstime,” January 2006. Available online at:

Consumer Reports WebWatch, “Leap of Faith: Using the Internet Despite the Dangers,” October 26, 2005 . Available online at:

Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Office of Inspector General, “Report of Review: Review of Alleged Actions Violating The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, as Amended,” Report No. EPB503-602, Pg. 6, November 15, 2005 .

Robert W. Crandall, Robert W. Hahn, Robert E. Litan, and Scott Wallsten, (“Universal Broadband Access: Implementing President Bush’s Vision,” AEI-Brookings Joint Center For Regulatory Studies, May 2004. Available online at:

CSFB Media Week presentations, December 2005.

Tim Cuprisin, “Channel 18’s 9 p.m. News Might Sign Off,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 16, 2006 .

Anthony Crupi, “CBS White House Correspondent Roberts Joins CNN,” Media Week, February 1, 2006 .

Anthony Crupi, “CNN Names Gallagher Faith and Values Corr,” Media Week, September 7, 2005 .

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Paul Davidson, “Martin Known as Consensus Builder,” USA Today, October 30, 2005 .

Wendy Davis, “Deutsche Bank: Online Ad Spending Up 11 % in Q2,” Media Post, July 18, 2005 .

Wendy Davis, “Marketers Shift Budget To Local Sites,” Media Post, October 19, 2005 .

Wendy Davis, “ OMMA Keynote: Online World Unprepared For Influx Of Marketing Dollars,” Online Media Daily, June 7, 2005

Wendy Davis, “Online Rivals Papers, Surpasses Yellow Pages Among Local Shoppers,” Media Daily News, March 23, 2005 .

Davies, Jennifer, Gluttons for Gossip, San Diego Union-Tribune, September 3, 2005 .

Heidi Dawley, “Time-wise, Internet is now TV’s equal,” Media Life Magazine, February 1, 2006 .

Jay DeFoore, “More Than 2,000 Newspaper Jobs Lost in 2005,” Editor & Publisher November 17, 2005 . (The 2,000 total includes jobs in all departments, not just news.)

Michael Deibert, “Newspaper Ad Spending Climbs, Albeit Mostly Online,” Media Post, August 23, 2005

John Dempsey, “The Fox ripple effect,” Variety, March 13, 2005 .

Stefano DellaVigna & Ethan Kaplan, “Fox News Effect: Media Bias and Voting,” U.C. Berkeley, August 15, 2005 . Retrieved from

“Free Fall for U.S. Newspapers’ Circulations,” Digital Deliverance, November 1, 2004 . Available online at:

Tom Dorsey, “CNN‘s fidgeting isn‘t helping in race to catch Fox News,” The Courier-Journal, July 23, 2005.

Geoff Dougherty, “Emmis Communications sells 9 TV stations for $ 681M,” The Chicago Tribune, August 23, 2005 .

Kevin Downey, “Payout: Clear Channel’s ratings are up,” Media Life Magazine (, January 24, 2006 .

Kevin Downey, “For Nielsen, a Most Delicate Dilemma,” Media Life, November 18, 2005 .

“ U.S. Stocks End Slightly Lower; Oil at 5 1/2 Month Low,” Dow Jones, November 29, 2005 .

Duffy, Brian, memo as reprinted on the Poynter Online Forum

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“The battle of the portals,” The Economist, October 22-28,2005 .

“The online ad attack,” The Economist, April 27, 2005 .

“International Yearbook,” Editor & Publisher, 2005.

“Listen Up! Oxford Dictionary Picks Its ‘Word of the Year,’ and It’s ‘Podcast,’ ” Editor and Publisher, December 8, 2005

“Scripps Closing Birmingham Post-Herald, Dissolving JOA,” Editor and Publisher online, September 22, 2005 .

“TimesSelect Draws About 135,000 Paid Users for Exclusive Online Offerings,” Editor and Publisher, November 9, 2005

“Top 20 Papers By Circulation, According to New FAS-FAX,” Editor & Publisher, November 7, 2005 .

2004 Editor and Publisher Yearbook Online data, 1940-2003,

Rick Edmonds, “As Blogs and Citizen Journalism Grow, Where’s the News?” Poynter Online, November 14, 2005 . Available online at:

Rick Edmonds, “A Bad Year for Newspaper Stocks – A Worse Year for the Gray Lady,” Poynter Online, January 12, 2006. Available online at:

Rick Edmonds, “An Online Rescue for Newspapers?” Poynter Online, January 27, 2005 . Available online at:\

Rick Edmonds, “Ignoring the Elephants in Newspaperland,” Poynter Online, December 3, 2004.

Rick Edmonds, “The Next Bad Thing for Newspapers? More Circulation Woes,” Poynter Online, November 3, 2005.

Rick Edmonds, “Trouble on the Top Line,” Poynter Online, June 27, 2005. Available online at:

John Eggerton, “DTV Bill Signed into Law,” Broadcasting & Cable, February 8, 2006 .

John Eggerton, “Bill Bennett Joins CNN,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 25, 2006 .

John Eggerton, “Wolzien Exiting Sanford Bernstein”, Broadcasting & Cable, July 15, 2005

Ben Elgin, “Gunning for Google,” Business Week, November 8, 2005 .

Tobi Elkin, “AOL Eyes Web Video Sales Opportunities, Says “Upfront” Not Likely,” Media Post, March 14, 2005

Stuart Elliott, The New York Times, “With Fewer Paying Up, Shifts to Free,” October 14, 2005.

Stuart Elliot, “To promote a cable network, a plan to inundate the Internet,” New York Times, December 12, 2005 .

“The Broadband Revolution: You Say You Want a Definition,” emarketer, March 30, 2001

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Ross Fadner, “Newspapers Brace for Google Free WiFi Plan,” Media Daily News, October 7, 2005 .

Fadner, Ross, Newsstand Sales Soar for Celebrity Magazines, November 15, 2005 ,

Financial Wire, “NBC, Time Reach Agreement,” October 25, 2005 .

Jon Fine, “Net to Newspapers: Drop Dead,” BusinessWeek online, July 4, 2005.

Lauren Rich Fine, “Newspaper Primer, 5th Edition,” Merrill Lynch, May 11, 2001 .

Lauren Rich Fine, “Tribune Co. – Is There a Way to Surface Value: A Scenario Analysis,” analyst’s report for Merrill Lynch, November 8, 2005 .

Lauren Rich Fine, “2006: A Bifurcated Year or Before KRI, After KRI,” Merrill Lynch, January 9, 2006 .

Lauren Rich Fine, “Q4 Preview,” Merrill Lynch, January 17, 2006 .

Mark Fitzgerald, “Editor of the Year 2004: Being Julia, In Atlanta ,” Editor & Publisher, February 1, 2005 .

Mark Fitzgerald, “Shield Law Sponsor: Bloggers ‘Probably Not’ Considered Journos,” Editor and Publisher, October 10, 2005 .

Toni Fitzgerald, “CNN Headline News topples MSNBC,” Media Life Magazine, March 31, 2005 .

Toni Fitzgerald, “CNN Headline News topples MSNBC,” Media Life Magazine, March 31, 2005 .

Lucinda Fleeson, “Bureau of Missing Bureaus,” American Journalism Review, October/November 2003.

Franklin Foer, “The Journal At Sea,” New York , September 12, 2005 .

David Folkenflik, Morning Edition, June 30, 2005 .

AP, “Laredo TV Station drops newscast, staff,” Fort Worth Star Telegram, January 4, 2006 .

Jon Freidman, “Happy Birthday CNN. Now form an identity,” Market Watch, June 10, 2005 .

Wayne Friedman, “NBC Buys up More of MSNBC from Microsoft,” Media Post Magazine, December 27, 2005 .

Wayne Friedman, “NBC Buys Up More of MSNBC from Microsoft,” Media Post Magazine, December 27, 2005 .

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Gallup Poll, May 23-26, 2005 .

Gannett, “ Gannett completes acquisition of HomeTown Communications Network’s assets; Richard Aginian named consultant and president and publisher of Detroit suburban group,” Gannett press release, March 31, 2005 . Available online at:

Jill Geisler, “Morale, Motivation and Balance,” Poynter Online, March 7,2005. Available online at:

Gary Gentile, “Five Tribune Papers to Seek Job Cuts,” Chicago Tribune, November 17, 2005 . (The Hartford Courant announced its cuts later).

Mark Glaser, “ NY Times explodes wall between print, Web,” Online Journalism Review, August 8, 2005

Donald Graham presentation to CSFB Media Week Investors Conference, December 6, 2005 . Available online at: htt p://

Clark Gilbert and Scott D. Anthony, “Newspapers in an Electronic Age,” the Wall Street Journal, November 8, 2005 .

Paul Ginocchio, “Auto: Turning the Corner or Are the Wheels Coming Off,” Deutsche Bank Securities, January 17, 2006 .

Paul Ginocchio, “Circulation Declines Accelerate Again,” Deutsche Bank Securities, November 8, 2005 .

Paul Ginocchio, “Newspaper Publishers Keeping Cash in Circulation,” Deutsche Bank Securities, August 11, 2003 .

Paul Ginocchio, “Newspaper Publishers: Private Company Outlook, ” Deutsche Bank Securities, December 1, 2005 .

Mark Glaser, “ NY Times explodes wall between print, Web,” Online Journalism Review, August 8, 2005

Mark Glaser, “Two Times One,” Media , October 2005.

Antone Gonsalves, “”Online Ad Spending Projected To Slow,” Tech Web News, May 6, 2005.

Matea Gold, “Koppel will do in-depth shows for Discovery; Ex-Nightline anchor to focus on topics like international affairs, race, religion,” Los Angeles Times, Jan. 5, 2006

Paul Gough, TV News Section, Hollywood Reporter, June 22, 2005 .

Michele Greppi, “Geraldo prepping new daily show,” Television Week, October 3, 2005 .

Marisa Guthrie, “CBS’ Roberts jumps to CNN,” New York Daily news, February 2, 2006 .

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Hall’s Reports research. Unpublished data.

Saul Hansell, “As Gadgets Get It Together, Media Makers Fall Behind,” the New York Times, January 25, 2006 .

Saul Hansell, “Big Hitters Said to Want Piece of AOL,” the New York Times, October 13, 2005 .

Saul Hansell, “An Ex-ABC Impresario Aims to Build the Studio of the Future,” the New York Times, September 24, 2005 .

Saul Hansell, “Google wants to dominate Madison Avenue, too,” the New York Time s, October 30, 2005

Saul Hansell, “It’s Not TV, It’s Yahoo,” the New York Times, September 24, 2005 .

Saul Hansell, “More People Are Watching Their Programs on the Web, The New York Times, August 1, 2005 .

Saul Hansell, “Yahoo Hires Journalist to Report on Wars,” the New York Times, September 12, 2005 .

Saul Hansell, “Yahoo plans to connect services with TiVo,” the New York Times, November 7, 2005

Saul Hansell and Geraldine Fabrikant, “New Free Site May Affect Time Warner Decision on Troubled Unit,” the New York Times, June 3, 2005 .

Saul Hansell and Geraldine Fabrikant, “Why Time Warner Has Fallen in Love With AOL, Again,” the New York Times, September 26, 2005 .

Harris Interactive/ Public Relations Society of America , “Executive, Congressional and Consumer Attitudes Toward Media, Marketing and the Public Relations Profession,” November 10, 2005 .

Paul Heine, “Hollander: A Radio Shift is Underway,” Billboard Radio Monitor, September 27, 2005 .

Samantha Henig, “Larry Kramer on, Transparency, and Having 1,500 Employees for a Web Site,” CJR Daily, July 29, 2005 .

Eric Herman, “Pressure Rises for Trib Chief,” Chicago Sun-Times, January 3, 2006 .

Neil Hickey, “TV on Steroids,” Columbia Journalism Review, March/April, 2004.

John M. Higgins, “CBS: In the Money,” Broadcasting & Cable, January 8, 2006 .

John M. Higgins, “The Battle for Fifth Place,” Broadcasting & Cable, February 27, 2006 .

John M. Higgins, “D’Alba keeps fighting for CNN”, Broadcasting & Cable, October 17, 2005 .

Jonathan Higuera, Print Reorganizes, Hispanic, December 2005., Univision Communications fact sheet.

“Media Consumption Study,” Hoy & TNS Market Development, October 11, 2005 . Online at:,0,305692.story.

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ImpreMedia press release, “ ImpreMedia Enters Florida Market with Purchase of La Prensa,” January 31 2006 .

“Internet Advertising Revenues Estimated To Exceed $12.5 Billion For Full Year 2005,” Interactive Advertising Bureau, March 1, 2006 .

Interactive Advertising Bureau, “Interactive Advertising Revenues Grow Nearly 33% As 2004 Totals $9.6 Billion,” April 28, 2005 .

Interactive Advertising Bureau, “Q2 Reports Close to $3 Billion in Internet Advertising Revenues,” September 26, 2005 .

“CNBC girds for Fox Business threat,”, September 21, 2005 .

Impremedia. Newspapers page.

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Peter Johnson, “ABC News team makes formal debut tonight,” USA Today, January 3, 2005 .

Peter Johnson, “Webcasts, blogs allow flexibility,” USA Today, January 3, 2006 .

Chris Jones and J.M. Kalil, “ Las Vegas Sun to rise with morning R-J,” Las Vegas Review Journal, June 15, 2005 .

Jupiter Media, “Jupiter Research Forecasts Online Advertising Market To Reach $18.9 Billion By 2010; Search Advertising Revenue to Surpass Display,” Jupiter Media press release, August 15, 2005 .

Mark Jurkowitz, “Amid cuts, Herald loses newsroom veterans,” Boston Globe, June 11, 2005 .

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KAET, Arizona State University ’s public television station Web site.

Kagan Research, “Economics of Basic Cable Networks 2006,” Kagan Research, LLC, June 2005.

The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8-18 Year-olds,” March 2005. Available online at:

Ken Kerscbaumer, “CNN Opens Up Pipeline,” Broadcasting and Cable, December 5, 2005

Ken Kerschbaumer, “TV on the PC gets real: Time Warner launches trial in San Diego ,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 8, 2005 .

David Kesmodel, “Papers Turn to ‘Podcasting’ In Bid to Draw More Readers,” the Wall Street Journal, May 13, 2005 .

Kirk Whisler & Latino Print Network, “Hispanic Publications in 2004,” Carlsbad . California .

Kirk Whisler & Latino Print Network, “Hispanic Publication Advertising Sales in 2004,” Carlsbad , California .

Kirk Whisler & Latino Print Network, “Hispanic Publication Advertising Sales in 2003,” Carlsbad , California .

Abbey Klaasen, “CNN‘s Aaron Brown out; Anderson Cooper moved to 10 p.m.,” Ad Age, November 3, 2005.

Klaassen, Abbey, “Looking for a Grinch? Try Media Company CEOs,” Ad, December 16, 2005

Howard Kurtz, “Ted Koppel and Nightline Crew Turn Down HBO for Discovery Deal,” Washington Post, Jan. 5, 2006

Howard Kurtz, “ U.S. News Gives a Top Political Writer the Pink Slip,” Washington Post, October 5, 2005

Howard Kurtz, “ABC Mulls Changes to ‘Nightline’ With Or Without Koppel,” Washington Post, February 9, 2005 .

Howard Kurtz, “Firms Paid TV’s Tech Gurus To Promote Their Products,” Washington Post, April 20, 2005 .

Howard Kurtz and Frank Ahrens, “Sirius Lands a Big Dog: Howard Stern,” Washington Post, October 7, 2004 .

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Stephen Labaton, “NPR Conflict With Overseer Is Growing,” New York Times, May 15, 2005.

Stephen Labaton, Lorne Manly & Elizabeth Jensen, “Chairman Exerts Pressure on PBS, Alleging Biases,” New York Times, May 2, 2005 .

Paul R. La Monica, “Should GE cancel NBC Universal?” Media Biz on CNN Money, January 19, 2006 . Online at:

J.D. Lasica, “Participatory Journalism Puts the Reader in the Driver’s Seat,” August 7, 2003

Robert P. Laurence, “Network news opts for style over substance,” The San Diego Union-Tribune, December 22, 2005 .

Charles Layton, “The Dallas Mourning News,” American Journalism Review, April/May 2005.

Charles Layton, “ Sherman ’s March,” American Journalism Review, February/March 2006.

Michael Learmonth, “Jolly Roger’s Grand Plan,” Variety, October 16, 2005 .

Michael Learmonth, “CNN Flops in February as Fox News Surges,” Daily Variety, March 2, 2005 .

Michael Learmonth, “Fox Nets Record Aud for Prexy Speech: State of the Union address draws in 6.46 million viewers,” Daily Variety, February 1, 2006 .

Jeff Leeds, “Director at XM Resigns as Costs Skyrocket,” New York Times, February 17, 2006 .

Scott Leith, “CNN enshrines fire and ice team of Cooper, Brown,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, September 30, 2005 .

Scott Leith, “CNN sets up permanent New Orleans bureau to cover Katrina recovery,” Atlanta Journal and Constitution, September 16, 2005 .

Scott Leith, “CNN starts live net video service,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, December 3, 2005 .

Devin Leonard, “Big News at Dow Jones,” Fortune, January 20, 2006 .

Rob Lever, “Blogs take giant step towards mainstream,” AFP, October 19, 2005 .

Gary Levin, “Disney finds place for tweens,” USA Today, October 26, 2005 .

Steve Levingston, “A Trial Separation,” Washington Post, January 4, 2006 .

James L. Levre “The Fox News channel tops CNN’s audience, and casts its eyes toward its advertising rates”, the New York Times, January 30, 2002 .

David Lieberman, “$2.7B deal would put Disney radio unit in Citadel’s hands,” USA Today, February 6, 2006 .

Michael Liedtke, the Associated Press, “New Google Search Engine Boosts Blogging,” September 14, 2005

Robert E. Litan and Alice M. Rivlin, “Projecting the Economic Impact of the Internet,” American Economic Review, 91:2, 2001

Lowry, Tom, “Mighty Week,” Business Week, March 21, 2005

Joel Lunenfeld, “Online Video Advertising is Growing Up,” Media Post’s Online Video Insider, January 23, 2006 .

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Robert MacMillan, “Tsunami Prompts Online Outpouring,” The Washington Post, January 3, 2005 .

“Towards a Critical Media Studies Approach to the Blogoshpere,” by Vincent Maher. Available online at:

Scott Maier, “Accuracy Matters: A Cross-Market Study of Newspaper Error and Credibility,” Journalism and Mass Communications Quarterly, Autumn 2005.

Steven Mallas, “XM’s Foxy Deal,” The Motley, October 21, 2005

Joe Mandese, “TV, Radio, Outdoor Ratings Poised for Transformation, New Alliances,” Media Daily News, July 22, 2005 , posted 8:15am EST.

Carl Marcucci, “Buyers, sellers address the 2006 radio upfront — Part II,” Radio & Television Business Report, October 2005, Volume 22, Issue 10, pg. 14.

Kevin J. Martin, “Protecting Children from Violent and Indecent Programming.” Written statement for the Commission on Commerce, Science and Transportation, U.S. Senate, February 11, 2004 .

Sam Matthews, “BBC hints at launch of 24-hour US news station,” Brand Republic , October 11, 2005 .

Sarah McBride, “TV News Stars Move to NPR And Sound Off,” the Wall Street Journal, January 20, 2006 .

Robert McChesney and John Podesta ,“Let There Be Wi-Fi,” Washington Monthly, January/February 2006., “More on Atlantic Media’s New Superstar,” April 21, 2005

“The latest upfront news is, well, news,” Media Daily News, June14, 2005.

Media Mark Research, Inc. (Prepared by NAA Business Analysis and Research Department), “Newspaper Section Readership 2005,” Spring 2004 study. Available online at:

Mediamark Research, “Magazine Audience Estimates” 1997.

Mediamark Research, “Magazine Audience Estimates” 2005.

News Brief, “Kagan: cable has recovered, will grow at double-digit rates,” October 3, 2005 , Media Post Web site.

Don Melvin, “More Americans turn to BBC for news,” Cox News Service, August 26, 2004 .

Meredith Corporation press release, May 24, 2005

Davis Merritt, “Knightfall: Knight Ridder and How the Erosion of Newspaper Journalism is Putting Democracy at Risk.” ( New York , N.Y. : AMACOM Books, 2005)

Donica Mensing and Jackie Rejfek, “Prospects for profit: The (un)evolving business model for online news,” Paper presented to the International Symposium on Online Journalism, University of Texas at Austin, April 9, 2005.

Joel Meyer, “Journal Editorial Report Jumps to Fox News,” Broadcasting & Cable, November 30, 2005 .

Philip Meyer, “The Vanishing Newspaper: Saving Journalism in the Information Age” ( Columbia , University of Missouri Press, 2004).

Mid-Year Media Review presentation. Available online at:

Alex Mindlin, “Browsing the Site, Not Watching the Show,” New York Times, September 19, 2005

Arshad Mohammed, “Verizon Executive Calls for End to Google’s ‘Free Lunch,” the Washington Post, February 7, 2006 .

Monster 2004 annual report and presentation at CSFB Media Week Conference December 2005.

Linda Moss, “Viacom Split Becomes a Reality: Unwinding of Assets Targeted for Early ’06,” Multichannel News, June 20, 2005 .

Keith Moyer, et al. “10 Ways our new design will work for you,” (flash presentation). Available online at:, “Meet the Press No. 1 in November 2005 sweeps,” December 6, 2005 .

MSNBC Profile on the NBC Universal Web site (Company Overview, Television Networks). Online at:

Museum of Broadcast Communications , “U.S. POLICY: TELECOMMUNICATIONS ACT OF 1996,” Museum of Broadcast Communications Web site. Online:

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Andrew Nachison, the Media Center at the American Press Institute blog: Morph, June 22, 2005 , 4:53 p.m.

National Newspaper Association, “ America ’s Community Newspapers Grow; Thrive through Change,” December 2005.

National Public Radio Annual Report 2003, pg. 4.

New California Media Directory, National Ethnic Media, 2nd Edition.

News & Technology, “Patriot tab meets end in Harrisburg , Pa. ”November 2005. Available online at:

News Corp. Annual Report, June 2005

News Corporation press release, “Speech by Rupert Murdoch to the American Society of Newspaper Editors,” April 13, 2005 . Available online at:

“2005 Newspaper M & A Values Up 72%, Says Report,” News Inc. January 9, 2006 .

Newspaper Association of America, “Daily & Sunday Newspaper Readers Per Copy Trend,” Simmons and Market Research Bureau (1994-1997); MediaMark Research Inc. (1998-Present); SRDS Circulation prepared by NAA Business Analysis and Research Department, January 9, 2006.

Newspaper Association of America, “Daily and Sunday Newspapers 2005 Readers Per Copy,” prepared by NAA Business Analysis and Research Department, August 27, 2005 .

Newspaper Association of America, “Daily and Sunday Newspapers 2005 Readers Per Copy,” prepared by NAA Business Analysis and Research Dept., MRI Spring 2005; SRDS Circulation 2005.

Newspaper Association of America , “NAA Releases ABC FAS-FAX Analysis,” November 7, 2005 .

Newspaper Association of America , “New Newspaper Audience Database (NADbase) Report Provides Advertisers With Expanded Audience Measurement Data Across Media Platforms,” October 3, 2005 .

Newspaper Association of America , “Over 47 Million People Visited A Newspaper Web Site in September, Representing Nearly A Third of All Internet Users,” November 1, 2005 .

Newspaper Association of America , “Print And Online Newspaper Advertising Up 2.4% In Q3; Up 2.9% In First Nine Months of 2005,” November 22, 2005 .

Newspaper National Network, “Media Engagement Study,” June 15-21, 2005 .

“To Stop Drag, New Anchors,” New York Daily News, January 13, 2006 .

New York Times Company presentation at UBS Warburg Media Week Conference, December 2004.

Newsweek staff box, July 18, 2005

Nielsen Media Research Web site, Local People Meter Roll-Out Schedule, Online:

Yuki Noguchi, “Lycos, Yahoo Pushing to Put Media Online, the Washington Post, October 4, 2005 .

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W & X

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