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Source Bibliography

Source Bibliography

The following list comprises the sources used throughout this report.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y


AccuStream Research. Press Release, November 9, 2004.

Advertising Age, “100 Leading Media Companies,”, November 2004. Web site:

Ahrens, Frank. “Newspaper Company to Refund $27 Million Over Inflated Numbers.” Washington Post, October 6, 2004, page E3.

Albiniak, Paige and Anne Becker, “Games score big: As Olympics ratings rise, so do NBC’s profits.” Broadcasting & Cable, August 23, 2004.

Alves, Rosental Calmon. “Many Newspaper Sites Still Cling to Once-A-Day Publish Cycle.” USC Annenberg Online Journalism Review, July 21, 2004. Web site:

American Society of Newspaper Editors and Newspaper Association of America joint meeting April 2004. Transcript provided to Rick Edmonds by ASNE.

American Society of Newspaper Editors. “Keeping cash in circulation.” Published August 11, 2003., “Newsroom Employment Survey,” Ginocchio, Paul et al. (Data as of the end of 2003).

American Society of Newspaper Editors, “Newsroom Employment Survey,” Web site:

American Society of Newspaper Editors. “Newsroom employment drops again; diversity gains.” April 20, 2004. Web site:

American Society of Newspaper Editors, Newspaper Credibility Handbook. Published July 19, 2002. Web site:

Anderson, Nick. “Silence of the wolves, and their ilk, in swing states,” Los Angeles Times, November 2, 2004.

Andrew, Paul. “Bloggers clog up news at convention.”, August 16, 2004.
Angwin, Julia. “The right price: for Fox News, ad-sales market isn’t fair, balanced,” The Wall Street Journal, May 20, 2004.

Arbitron/Edison Media Research (New York, New York). “Internet 9: The Media and Entertainment World of Online Consumers.” Published 2002. Web site:

Asaravala, Amit. “Nielsen ‘people meters’ draw fire,” Wired, April 16, 2004. Online:,1367,63080,00.html

Associated Press Broadcast. “CustomNews: Turn your Web site into your audience’s online news source.” Web site:

Associated Press Wire, “Dallas Morning News to close Cuba news bureau.” October 29, 2004.

Associated Press Wire, “McClatchy snaps up Merced paper for $40.5 million.” December 5, 2003.
Associated Press Wire, “Newspapers cut hundreds of jobs.” October 28, 2004.

Associated Press Wire, “USA Today to raise its cover price to 75 cents,”, June 22, 2004. Web site:

Associated Press, “Clear Channel Sets ‘Zero Tolerance’ Policy on Indecency” Feb. 25, 2004.

Associated Press. “CBS protests Janet Jackson fine.” November 8, 2004.

Associated Press. “Clear Channel chooses Fox for news deal.” December 6, 2004. Web site:

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies. Unpublished.

Audit Bureau of Circulations News bulletin. “400th Reader Profile Report Released: The Philadelphia Daily News.” August 2004. Web site:

Audit Bureau of Circulations. Audit reports for various magazines, 2004.

Auletta, Ken. “Vox Fox,” The New Yorker, May 26, 2003.

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Bercovici, Jeff. “BBC World, for those in the know,” Media Life Magazine, March 31, 2003. Web site:

Berkowitz, Harry. “Murdoch plans summer launch of new financial channel,” Newsday, November 17, 2004.

Bernstein Research. “Media: TV Equilibrium Ahead as Distribution Burst Ends, 25-Year Broadcast Net Slide Nearly Over.” August 20, 2004.

Bianco, Anthony. “The Future of the New York Times.” Business Week , January 17, 2005. Web site:

Bigelow, Bruce V. “Backlash hits Sinclair on disputed ‘news event.'” San Diego Union-Tribune, October 20, 2004.

Blanton, Dana. “Voters Still Evenly Divided.”, March 25, 2004.

Blogads. “Reader Survey for blog advertising.” Henry Copeland. May 21, 2004. Web site:

Blood, Rebecca. “Weblogs: a history and perspective.”, September 7, 2000. Web site:

Bloomberg Television fact sheet. Web site:

Borell Associates. “Preparing for 2005 Budgets.” Memo, August 3, 2004.

Borell Associates. “What Local Web Sites Earn.” May, 2004.

Broadcasting & Cable, “The shape of things to come.” January 5, 2004.

Broadcasting & Cable. “Powell’s agenda for ’04.” January 26, 2004.

Brokamp, Robert. “General Electric and its army,” The Motley Fool, January 20, 2000. Web site:

Burt, Tim. “A New Media Model?” The Financial Times. November 30, 2004. “Wall Street Journal announces expansion plans.” September 16, 2004. Web site:

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Carter, Bill and Jacques Steinberg. “Improved Numbers Shelter CBS From the Fallout,” The New York Times, November 25, 2004.

Carter, Bill. “Anti-Kerry film reaps storm for broadcaster,” The New York Times, October 19, 2004.

Carter, Bill. “CNN Will Cancel ‘Crossfire’ and Cut Ties to Commentator,” The New York Times, January, 6, 2005, C5.

Carter, Bill. “CNN will close financial news channel,” The New York Times, October 29, 2004.

Carter, Bill. “Courage, CBS News.” The New York Times. November 24, 2004.

Carter, Bill. “Deal Complete, NBC Is Planning to Cross-Market,” The New York Times, May 13, 2004.

Carter, Bill. “NBC cancels the pause between shows,” The New York Times, October 3, 1994. “Dan Rather Statement on Memos.”

Chunovic, Louis. “A ‘fierce warrior’ learns the ropes,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 25, 2004.

Chunovic, Louis. “ABC banks on its local strengths,” Broadcasting & Cable, July 12, 2004.

Chunovic, Louis. “The son also rises,” Broadcasting & Cable, October 25, 2004., June 30, 2004.

Coates, James. “Speedy reader delivers news from many sites.” Chicago Tribune, August 28, 2004.

Collins, Bob. Minnesota Public Radio website, “Public radio listeners asking, ‘What about Bob?,'” April 1, 2004.

Columbia Journalism Review editors, “American’s Best Newspapers.” Columbia Journalism Review, November/December 1999. Web site:

Columbus Dispatch. “Let The Voter Beware: Sorting Through the Truth and Lies of Campaign Season is Becoming More Difficult.” November 18, 2004. 10A. Web site:

Comedy Central. Press release, September 28, 2004. Web site:
108th Congress, 2nd Session. H.R. 4026, Local Emergency Radio Service Preservation Act. Introduced March 24, 2004.

Corzen, Inc. “Web-only Recruitment Advertising Option Continues to Rise Among Newspapers.” Press release, February 16, 2004.

Cotts, Cynthia, “California, Ho!,” The Village Voice, March 24 – 30, 2004.

Crawford, Krysten. “A vote for local TV,” CNN/Money, July 13, 2004. On line:

Crawford, Krysten. “Howard Stern Jumps to Satellite,” CNN Money, Oct. 6, 2004

Cuprisin, Tim. “Inside Radio & TV,” Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, July 21, 2004.

Currie, Jon. Interview, August 25, 2004. “Top news sites for December [2004].” January 12, 2005. Web site:

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Dawidziak, Mark. Cleveland Plain Dealer, “CBS network’s shining stars hit milestones,” November 14, 2004.

de Moraes, Lisa. “Other Networks’ Election Loss Is Fox News’s Gain,” Washington Post, November 4, 2004.

de Moraes, Lisa. “Sweeps Week: The Vote Count,” Washington Post, November 15, 2000.

de Moraes, Lisa. “The sync that sank Ashlee: ’60 Minutes’ has it covered,” The Washington Post, October 29, 2004.

Deutsche Bank Securities (New York, New York). “Circulation uncensored.” Paul Ginocchio et al. Published August 20, 2004.

Deutsche Bank Securities (New York, New York). “Keeping cash in circulation.” Paul Ginocchio et al. Published August 11, 2003.

Deutsche Bank Securities (New York, New York). “Wal-Mart takes a bite out of local.” Paul Ginocchio et al. Published September 20, 2004.

Diaz, Kevin. “Satellite Radio: Ad-free for a fee; ‘What it’s about is control,’ subscribers say,” Star Tribune (Minneapolis, MN), October 8, 2004.

Don Melvin, “More Americans turn to BBC for news,” Cox News Service, August 26, 2004. Web site:;COXnetJSessionID=BDVf5syFDXDedkW9bWuX42rm2WCrkztziU2DLwnkM2eOnS52pp3U!-1391086447?urac=n&urvf=11033203513610.19218272357278554.

Donovan, Sharon. “Brand builders,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 21, 2004.

Downey, Kevin. “Boston stink bomb over people meter,” Media Life Magazine, February 7, 2002. Web site:

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E&P Staff, “Newspapers Hold 7 Spots on Top 20 News Site List,” March 19, 2004. Web site:

Economic Policy Insitute. “Income Picture.” August 26, 2004. Web site:

Editor &Publisher Staff, “LA Times Cuts 160 Jobs, Shuts 2 Papers, in Round of Cutbacks.”, June 21, 2004.

Editor and Publisher Yearbook, 2004. Online data, 1940-2003. Web site:

Editor and Publisher. “Alternative Newspapers Turn in Strong ’03.” January 14, 2004.

Edmonds, Rick. “EXTRA! EXTRA! Newspapers Cope With Basic Problems.” Poynteronline, December 16, 2004. Web site:

Edmonds, Rick. “Ignoring the Elephant in Newspaperland.” Poynteronline, December 3, 2004. Web site:

Edmonds, Rick. “Improving Editorial Quality From the Top Down.” Poynteronline, February 23, 2004. Web site:

Edmonds, Rick. “Public Companies No Worse than Private.” Poynteronline, December 5, 2002. Web site:

Edmonds, Rick. “Readers vs. Subscribers.” Poynteronline, October 21, 2002.

Edmonds, Rick. “What Top Executives Are Talking About.” Poynteronline, June 25, 2004. Web site:

Edmonds, Rick. “Who’s Putting More Tomatoes in the Soup?” Poynteronline, April 20, 2004. Web site:

Egner, Jeremy. “What the #%@? is off-limits now?” Current, April 26, 2004.

Elber, Lynn. “Smiley’s brave new face,” AP, printed in the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel, January 10, 2005.

Elkin, Tobi. “Just An Online Minute…Broadband Penetration Slows.”, August 18, 2004.

Elkin, Tobi. “The Art of the Cross-Media Deal.”, August 23, 2004.

Encyclopedia of Television, “News, Local and Regional.” Web site:

Encyclopedia of Television. “U.S. Policy: Telecommunications Act of 1996.” Web site:

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Fadner, Ross. “Survey: Consumers Want More Personalized Online Ads, But Don’t Want Identities Known,” Media, September 10, 2004.

FAIR Extra! “Goliath vs. Goliath.” Update, December 1996. Web site:

FCC Guidelines. Web site:

FD Wire, “Q2 2004: The News Corporation Limited Earnings Conference Call,” February 11, 2004.

Federal Communications Commission (Washington, DC). “Availability of Advanced Telecommunications Capability in the United States.” Published September 9, 2004.

Fitzgerald, Mark. “A Circulation Chill on the Hot Latino Press.” Editor and Publisher. May 9, 2004.

Fitzgerald, Mark. “Diversity Analysis Says Only 13% of Daily Newsrooms Reflect Populations of Their Communities.” Editor&, May 12, 2004.

Fitzgerald, Toni. “Nielsen breaks Boston revolt,” Media Life Magazine, January 10, 2003. On line:

Fleeson, Lucinda. “Bureau of Missing Bureaus.,” American Journalism Review, October/November 2003. Online:

Flint, Joe. “NBC, Microsoft declare support for MSNBC unit,” The Wall Street Journal, August 27, 2004.

Francisco, Bambi. “The free vs. subscription debate.” CBS Market, November 16, 2004., “The ‘New’ CBS Bush Documents, Let’s do some investigating.”

Freedom du Lac, J. “Viacom move puts local TV folks on edge,” Sacramento Bee, December 7, 2004.

Frew, Wendy. “Murdoch packs his kitbag and heads off,” Sydney Morning Herald, November 3, 2004.

Frontline. “The Invasion of Iraq.” February 26, 2004.

Frontline. “Is Wal-Mart Good for America.” November 16, 2004.

Frontline. “The Jesus Factor.” April 29, 2004.

Frontline. “Who Decides Disability.” June 20, 2003.

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Gannett press release, “Gannett to acquire Home Town Communications Network.” November 19, 2004. Web site: press release, December 8, 2004. Web site: End-of-year (2004) data. Press release, December 8, 2004. Web site: Midyear 2004 data. Press release, June 22, 2004. Web site: Press release, June 22, 2004. Web site: Press release, October 12, 2004. Web site:

Geewax, Marilyn. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, “CBS tab for Super blunder: $550,000,” September 23, 2004.

Geraci, Charles. “Nevada Newspaper Responds to Wildfire With Blog.” Editor&, July 28, 2004.

Gershberg, Michele. “Clear Channel cuts commercials to gain ad dollars,” Reuters, July 19, 2004.

Gillespie, Elizabeth M. for the Associated Press. “Seattle Times rejects Hearst’s Offers in JOA Discussions.” July 2, 2004.

Gillmor, Dan. “We the media.” (Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2004).

Glaser, Mark. “Best Coverage of the U.S. Elections.”, December 11, 2003.

Glaser, Mark. “Business Side if Convergence Has Myths, Some Real Benefits.”, May 19, 2004.

Glaser, Mark. “Hold the Froth: MarketWatch, Slate Sales Signal Online Rebound.”, November 9, 2004.

Glaser, Mark. “Outsourcing News Sites May Prove Short-Sighted for Local TV Stations.”, March 26, 2004.

Glaser, Mark. “Papers’ Online Units Allow Editorial Boards to Lift Veil with Video, Blogs.”, March 9, 2004.

Goldstein, Ken and Joel Rivlin. “Political advertising in the 2002 elections.” Web site:

Goldman, Ed general manager, WBZ-Boston, in “Beat the Press/Local People Meters,” Greater Boston with Emily Rooney [TV program, WGBH, Boston], May 3, 2002. On line:

Goodman, Ellen. “Morning Edition’s Wake-up Call,” Working for Change Web site, April 2, 2004.

Gough, Paul J. “Nielsen succumbs to political pressure, delays New York meters,” MediaPost’s Media Daily News, April 7, 2004. On line:

Grossman, Andrew. “Fox, Univision sights on ad mart,” Hollywood Reporter, March 4, 2004.

Grossman, Lawrence K. Triangle Institute for Security Studies. The American Media and Wartime Challenges. March 22, 2002

Grover, Ronald and Tom Lowry, “Rupert’s world,” Business Week, January 19, 2004.

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Hamilton, James. “All the News That’s Fit to Sell.” (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2004).

Hart and Teeter Research Companies. Survey by Council for Excellence in Government. February 5-February 8, 2004.

Hart, Jon and Ken Salomon, “Proposed FCC rule on indecency could hinge on election outcome,” The Wall Street Journal, November 1, 2004.

Higgins, John M. “A mixed bag,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 16, 2004.

Higgins, John M. “Ad spending on the rise,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 2, 2004.

Higgins, John M. “Still Strutting After All These Years.” Broadcasting and Cable. December 13, 2004.

Ho, David. “For CNN in New York, bigger is better,” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 15, 2004.

Hofmeister, Sallie. “Radio Drives Huge Loss at Viacom,” Los Angeles Times, February 25th, 2005.

Holloway, Diane. “TV losing its convention focus,” Austin American-Statesman, July 25, 2004.

Hooker, Cliff, “Hard News: Black newspapers fighting against the worst climate in decades,” Black Enterprise, December 2002.

Hu, Jim. “AOL beings testing new site revamp.” CNET, September 13, 2004.

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Impremedia. Newspapers page. Web site:

Independent Press Association (New York). “Many Voices, One City, the IPA Guide to the Ethnic Press of New York City.”

Interactive Advertising Bureau. “Annual Industry Revenues Grow Nearly 21% as Year Totals Nearly $7.3 Billion.” Press release, April 21, 2004.

Interactive Advertising Bureau. “$2.37 Billion Internet Ad Revenue for Q2 2004-Up 42.7 Percent from the Second Quarter 2003.” Press release, September 20, 2004.

Interactive Advertising Bureau. “Keyword Search Continues Strong, Rich Media Usage Grows.” Press release, April 21, 2004.

International Digital Media & Arts Association Journal. “Middletown Media Studies.” Vol. 1, no. 1 (Spring 2004). “Online Advertising Market: $9.1 Billion in 2004.” August 13, 2004.

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Jensen, Elizabeth. “Conservative TV group to air anti-Kerry film,” Los Angeles Times, October 9, 2004.

Johnson, Dean. “Left for Debt: Liberal yakker seeing red,” Boston Herald, April 14, 2004.

Johnson, Peter. “CBS Fires 4 over Bush Guard Story,” USA Today, January 26, 2005.

Johnson, Peter. “Easy Like ‘Sunday Morning,’ ” USA Today, January 21, 2004.

Johnson, Peter. “Ratings challenges deepen for ‘Nightline,’ ‘This Week,’ ” USA Today, January 9, 2005.

Johnson, Steve. Chicago Tribune, October 19, 2004.

Johnson. USA Today. March 29, 2004.

Journal Register Company. “Journal Register Company to Acquire 21st Century Newspapers.” Press release, July 6, 2004. Web site:

Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly. “Non-Metropolitan Daily Newspaper Markets.” Summer 2004.

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Kagan Research, Economics of Basic Cable Networks, 2004.

Kagan Research. “100 Leading Media Companies.” August 2004. Web site:

Kaplan, Jonathan E. “Howard Stern says he can deliver swing voters to Kerry,” The Hill. June 15, 2004.

Kerschbaumer, Ken. “CNN heats up with Pathfire,” Broadcasting & Cable, February 3, 2003.

KeyNote. “KeyNote Research: News Video Quality Survey,” May 2004. Web site:

Kirk, Jim. “For sale sign off Sun-times.” Chicago Tribune Online, May 28, 2004.

Klein, Ezra. “Power Trippi.” Washington Monthly. October 2004.

Kronke, David. Redlands Daily, January 18, 2005.

Kropf, Schuyler. “Tenenbaum, DeMint raised $12M for race,” Charleston Post and Courier, October 16, 2004.

Kuhnhenn, James. “Press feels partisan pressure to perform,” Contra Costa Times, July 5, 2004.

Kumler, Emily. “Activism Goes Digital.”, April 23, 2004.

Kurtz, Howard. “Osama Who? When No News Is ‘Bad News,’ ” The Washington Post, January 24, 2005.

Kurtz, Howard. “Rick Kaplan, Putting more NBC in MSNBC,” The Washington Post, January 31, 2005.

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Labaton, Stephen. “Court orders F.C.C. to rethink new rules on growth of media,” The New York Times, June 25, 2004.

Labaton, Stephen. “U.S. backs off relaxing rules for big media,” The New York Times, January 28, 2005.

Lafayette, Jon. “CNN touting greater out-of-home viewers,” Television Week, March 22, 2004.

Larson, Megan. “Klein named president, CNN/U.S.,” Mediaweek, November 22, 2004.

Latino Print Network (Carlsbad, CA). “Hispanic Publication Advertising Sales in 2003.”

Lazaroff, Leon. “Green Bay paper’s battle ends; owner sells to Gannett.” Chicago Tribune Online, July 24, 2004.

Leeds, Jeff. “Clear Channel ready to push Spanish radio.” New York Times News Service. September 17, 2004. Web site:

Levere, Jane L. “The Fox News Channel tops CNN’s audience, and casts its eyes toward its advertising rates,” The New York Times, January 30, 2002.

Levy, Harlan. “Courant parent could face antitrust lawsuit,” The Journal-Inquirer (Manchester, Conn.), May 7, 2003.

Lieberman, David. “Study: Cable losing steam,” USA Today, August 24, 2004.

Life Magazine website.

Linnett, Richard. “Fox claims win over CNN in cable upfront,” Advertising Age, July 14, 2003.

Lorek, L.S. “Clear Channel Communications downplays Write-Off,” San Antonio Express-News,” March 1, 2005.

Los Angeles Business, “Univision, Miller Toast $100 Million Ad Deal,” October 8, 2004. Web site:

Loviglio, Joann. The Associated Press. “Newspapers riding out complaints over online registration,” June 13, 2004.

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Macht, Joshua. “How to Knock Down a Story.” Time magazine. September 27, 2004.

Mack, Ann M. “Rick Media Usage Grows in First Quarter.”, May 11, 2004.
Malcolm, Vince general manager, KTLA-Los Angeles, in Pat Maio, “New ratings meter could alter TV news: without sweeps, the need for over-the-top newscasts might go away for good.” Los Angeles Business Journal, July 19, 2004.

Malone, Julie. “Unrestricted Internet Opens Way for Political Humor.” Cox News Service, May 18, 2004.

Mandese, Joe. “Broadband Breaks 50% of Mass, Marks a Critical Pass.”, August 19, 2004.

Mandese, Joe. “Kerry beats Bush… among planners, buyers.” MediaPost, October 29, 2004. Web site:

Mandese, Joe. “Marketers Plan Slower Ad Expansion in ’05.”, September 15, 2004.

Mandese, Joe. “Papers, local TV seen as more credible than network news; consumers, trade split on bias,”, November 1, 2004.

Marshall, Joshua Micah. “Feel the Buzz.” September 7, 2004.

McClellan, Steve. “Attack mode,” Broadcasting & Cable, April 5, 2004.

McClellan, Steve. “Changing the Guard; As McLaughlin’s stock sinks, Matthews rises.” Broadcasting and Cable, June 28, 2004.

McClellan, Steve. “Meters take big bite out of Big Apple,” Broadcasting & Cable, June 13, 2004.

McClellan, Steve. “War of Addition,” Broadcasting & Cable, May 17, 2004.

McClintock, Pamela. “Court: FCC duopoly reg is too strict,” Variety, April 2, 2002.

McConnell, Bill. “Big trick,” Broadcasting & Cable, July 16, 2004.

McConnell, Bill. “Playing for keeps,” Broadcasting & Cable, August 9, 2004.

McGinty, Tom et al., “Anatomy of a Circulation Fabrication.” Newsday, September 12, 2004.

Media Matters for America, “FOX aired 48 minutes more (20 percent) of RNC speeches than of DNC speeches,” September 3, 2004.

Media “DoubleClick’s Rich Media Ads Remain Stagnant.” November 11, 2004.

Mediaweek, Advertisement. November 22, 2004.

MediaMark Research, Inc. (New York, New York). “Newspaper Section Readership 2004.” Published Spring 2003.

Mediamark Research. “Magazine Audience Estimates” 1995 – 2004. Web site:

MediaPost, TV Watch, September 24, 2004, Wayne Friedman, “Let’s Talk About Sex, FCC.”

Mellman, Jeremy. “Tribune frets over Bush media move,” Chicago Business, January 27, 2005.

Memmott, Mark and Jim Drinkard, “Election ad battle smashes record in 2004,” USA Today, November 26, 2004.

Merrill Lynch (New York, New York). “Newspaper Industry Primer (8th Edition).” Lauren Rich Fine. August 26, 2004.

Merrill Lynch (New York, New York). “The Newspaper Industry.” Lauren Rich Fine. Published June 21, 2004.

Merrill Lynch (New York, New York).”Newspaper Industry Primer (8th Edition).” Lauren Rich Fine. August 26, 2004.

Metz, Rachel. “We Don’t Need no Stinkin’ Login.”, July 20, 2004.

Meyer, Philip. “The Vanishing Newspaper: Saving Journalism in the Information Age.” (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 2004).

MORI Research for the Newspaper Association of America. “Reaching Influentials & Influencing Purchases Via Newspaper Websites.” January 2004. Web site: Are these two the same?

MORI Research. “Power User 2004: Reaching Influentials & Influencing Purchases Via Newspaper Websites,” January 2004. Web site:

Morlino, Robert. “Sinclair flap proves exception,” Center for Public Integrity, October 28, 2004. “ reports quarterly profit.” July 22, 2004.

Mundy, Alicia. “Put the blame on Peggy, boys,” Cable World, June 30, 2003. Web site:

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National Cable and Telecommunications Association. “New Interactive Services Lead Cable’s 2004 Activity to Date.” Press release, July 6, 2004. Web site:

NBC. Press release, June 10, 2004.

New California Media. “Public Opinion Survey of California Ethnic Groups About Criminal Justice Issues.”

Newspaper Association of America presentation (Washington, D.C.). “Why the Current Business Model Needs to Change.” April 21, 2004. Web site:

Newspaper Association of America press release, “Newspaper Readership Remains Strong in Top 50 Markets.” November 1, 2004. Web site:

Newspaper Association of America Website. “Newspaper Advertising Rises Nearly 4 Percent in Third Quarter.” November 18, 2004. Web site:

Newspaper Association of America. “NAA Expects 4.1% Increase in Ad Spending in 2005.” December 6, 2004. Web site:

Newsweek. Staff box, July 26, 2004.

Nielsen Media Research. “VNU’s Nielsen Media Research and Viacom’s television operations sign multi-year agreements for expanded TV measurement.” Press release, July 29, 2003. Online:

Nielsen Monitor Plus, “John Kerry Local Political Ad Spending On The Rise – George Bush Scaling Back,” press release, June 17, 2004.

Nielsen Monitor-Plus and the University of Wisconsin Advertising Project, “High Volume of Presidential Campaign TV Advertising in Battleground States, Yet 60 % of Americans Live in Areas Where No Ads Have Aired,” July 18, 2004, p. 6.

Nielsen NetRatings, “Top 20 Online Current Events & Global News Destinations,” October 2004.

Noah, Timothy. “Beating swords into TV shares,” U.S. News & World Report, December 1, 1997.

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O’Malley, Gavin. “Blog Readership Up in ’04; Advertisers not Sold.”, January 4, 2005.

Olsen, Stefanie. “Extra! Wall Street Journal gives away Web content.”, October 22, 2004. Web site:

Olsen, Stefanie. “Striking up digital video search.”, November 29, 2004. Web site:
On the Media. “Kickers.” September 3, 2004. Web site:

Online Publishers Association, “Convenience and Accessibility Key Factors in Media Use of 18-34 Year-Olds, According to New Online Publishers Association Report.” Press release, April 20, 2004. Web site:

Online Publishers Association. “Online Paid Content U.S. Market Spending Report.” November 2004. Web site:

Online Publishers Association. “Online Compares Favorably to Other Media Across Generations, According to New Online Publishers Association Report.” Press release, September 21, 2004. Web site:

Oser, Kris. “Online Ad Spending Up 27%; Growth Twice as Fast as Cable.”, July 29, 2004.

Oxfeld, Jesse. “Watching the Newspaper on the Web.” Editor&, December 16, 2004.

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Papper, Bob. “Salaries soar,” RTNDA Communicator, June 2004.

Papper, Bob. “Survey shows solid growth in TV news and staffing,” RTNDA Communicator, September 2004.

Papper, Robert A., Michael E. Holmes, PhD., Mark N. Polovich, PhD. “Middletown Media Studies,” The International Digital Media & Arts Association Journal, Spring 2004.

Papper, Robert. “Middletown Media Studies,” presentation, July 22, 2004.

Papper, Robert. Ball State University, communication, November 28, 2004.

Parker, Pamela. “AOL’s Ads Surge, Subscriptions Drop.” Click, November 3, 2004.

Pelofsky, Jeremy. “FCC’s Powell sees long road ahead for media rules,” Reuters, December 2, 2004.

Pew Hispanic Center. “Hispanic Media Survey (Topline-National).” February-March 2004. Web site:

Pew Internet & American Life Project, “The Internet and Democratic Debate,” October 27, 2004. Web site:

Pew Internet & American Life Project, “Tracking Survey.” Topline results, March 2003.

Pew Internet & American Life Project. “The internet and democratic debate.” October 27, 2004. Web site:

Pew Internet & American Life Project. “The Internet and Democratic Debate.” October 27, 2004. Web site:

Pew Internet & American Life Project. “The Internet as a Unique News Source.” July 8, 2004. Web site:

Pew Internet & American Life Project. “The State of blogging.” January 2005.

Pew Internet & American Life Project. “Usage Over Time.” Date? Web site:

Pew Research Center for People & the Press, “News Interest Index.” Topline results, 2004.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (Washington, D.C.). “Pew Research Center Biennial News Consumption Survey.” Published June 8, 2004. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (Washington, DC). “Public Confidence in War Effort Falters.” Published March 25, 2003.Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (Washington, DC). “Strong Opposition to Media Cross-Ownership Emerges.” Published July 13, 2003.

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press (Washington, DC): “Evenly Divided and Increasingly Polarized.” Published November 5, 2003. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People & the Press in collaboration with the Project for Excellence in Journalism and the Committee of Concerned Journalists. “Bottom-Line Pressures Now Hurting Coverage, Say Journalists.” May 23, 2004. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Cable and Internet Loom Large in Fragmented Political News Universe,” January 11, 2004.

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Public faults Bush on economy,” August 12, 2004. Online:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Strong opposition to media cross-ownership emerges,” July 13, 2003. Web site::

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press, “Voters impressed with campaign but news coverage gets lukewarm ratings,” questionnaire, question 1a. Released October 24, 2004. Online:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Polls Face Growing Resistance, But Still Representative.” April 20, 2004.

Pew Research Center, “News audiences increasingly polarized,” June 8, 2004.

Pew Research Center. “Cable and Internet Loom Large in Fragmented Political News Universe.” Survey, January 11, 2004.

Porter, Tim. “Dismantling the Language Barrier.” American Journalism Review. October/November 2003. Web site:

Postman, David. “As campaign struggles, backers say Dean’s value lies online.” The Seattle Times, A1, February 14, 2004.

Potter, Deborah and Walter Gantz, “Bringing viewers back to local TV: What could reverse the ratings slide?” Online:

Potter, Deborah. “The end of sweeps?” American Journalism Review, April/May 2004.

Potter, Deborah. “TV: The 800-pound gorilla,”, September 22, 2004.

PR Newswire Association, Inc. “Tacoda Launches Online Industry’s First Audience-Centric Ad Network; Will Provide National Reach for Behavioral-Targeted Ads,” November 15, 2004.

Project for Excellence in Journalism research and Borell Associates, “What Local Web Sites Earn.” May, 2004.

Project for Excellence in Journalism. “ePolitics 2004.” February 2004. Web site:

Project for the Excellence in Journalism, “The Debate Effect”, October 27, 2004. Web site:

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