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Source Bibliography

Source Bibliography

The following list comprises the sources used throughout this report.

A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | R | S | T | U | V | W | Y


“ABC News Online Services Turns to Profit.” Reuters, December 18, 2003.

Ad Age. “100 Leading Media Companies, 2002 data.” Published August 18, 2003. Web site:

Laurien Alexandre and Henrik Rehbinder, “Separate but Unequal.” Columbia Journalism Review, November/December 2002, pp 99 – 101.

Craig M. Allen. News Is People. Ames, Ia.: Iowa State University Press, 2001.

American Association of Advertising Agencies and the Association of National Advertisers. “Television Commercial Monitoring Report, 2001.” Web site:

American Cable Association. “American Cable Association Files FCC Petition for Inquiry Into Retransmission Consent Practices.” Press release, October 1, 2002.

American Society of Newspaper Editors. “Newsroom Employment Survey.” Published 2003. Web site:

Arbitron, Inc. “Radio Today: How America Listens to Radio,” various editions, 1998 through 2003. Web site:

Arbitron/Edison Media Research. “Internet and Multimedia 11: New Media Enters the Mainstream, 2003.” Published 2003. Web site:

Associated Press, weekly stories on television ratings.

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies, unpublished data. Web site:

Association of Alternative Newsweeklies. “AAN Publication Directory.” Continually updated. Web site:

Audit Bureau of Circulations. “Audit Reports,” various magazines, 1991-2003. Web site:

Audit Bureau of Circulations. “Newspaper Publisher’s Statement,” March 30, 2003.

Ken Auletta, “Vox Fox.” The New Yorker, May 26, 2003.

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David Bauder, “Bad business news boosts CNBC.” Associated Press, July 4, 2002.

David Bauder, “CBS News hits ratings low.” Associated Press, July 3, 2003.

David Bauder, “For CNN, Fox’s open-and-shuttle case of piracy.” Associated Press, February 17, 2003.

Cory Bergman, “TV Stations May Finally Get the Point.” Online Journalism Review, April 24, 2003.

BIAfn MediaAccess Pro, unpublished data. Web site:

David Bianculli, “CNN exec knocks Fox News.” The New York Daily News, July 11, 2003.

Todd Bishop, “TV’s morning wars.” Philadelphia Business Journal, March 27, 2000.

Leo Bogart, “Newspapers. Figure out how to give readers a choice and take your eye off the quarterly earnings report.” Media Studies Journal, Spring/Summer 1999, pp. 60-68.

Borrell Associates, Inc. “What Newspaper Web Sites Earn.” Published April 2003. Web site:

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“Cable News Network.” Encyclopedia of Television. Web site:

Cable Television Advertising Bureau, “CNN Profile.” Web site:

Cable Television Advertising Bureau, 2003 Cable TV Fact Book. Web site:

“Ratings.” Cable World, January 13, 2003.

“Ratings.” Cable World, March 24, 2003.

“Ratings.” Cable World, March 31, 2003.

“Ratings.” Cable World, June 30, 2003.

Mercedes M. Cardona, “TV ad spending rebounds during week three of war.” Ad Age, April 23, 2003.

Dan Careless, “News sets on a budget.” Digital TV, January 2003.

Steve Carney, “Radio: Around the Dial: 22% of Americans get news from talk jocks.” Los Angeles Times, Friday, January 10, 2003.

David Carr, “Newsweeklies Agree to Pact on Allegations of Collusion.” The New York Times, Jan. 27, 2003 p. C-01.

Center for Media and Public Affairs, various studies. Web site:

Stephen Chiger, “FCC throws its weight behind DTV.” Medill News Service, August 8, 2002.

Classified Ventures, LLC. “Who we are.” Online presentation, 2003. Web site:

“CNN downsizing.” The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS, January 29, 2001. Web site:

CNN. “CNN Nuts and Bolts.” Web site:

comScore. “comScore Media Metrix Announces Top 50 U.S. Internet Property Rankings for September 2003.” Press release, October 21, 2003. Web site:

Dwight Crumb, “Centralcasting at WALA-TV.” Broadcast Engineering, March 1, 2003.

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Paul Davidson, “Local stations multicast multishows.” USA Today, January 28, 2004.

Lisa de Moraes, Washington Post, “Tim Russert Signs Record Deal With NBC News.” December 12, 2001.

Lyle Denniston, “Court delays FCC rules on media.” Boston Globe, September 4, 2003.

Walt Disney Company. “The Walt Disney Company Annual Report, 1999.” Web site:

Steve Donohue, “Fox News raced to 80M subs.” Multichannel News, June 3, 2002.

Robin Dougherty, “Animal Magnetism.” Salon, March 25, 1997. Web site:

Dow Jones, Inc. “SEC Quarterly Report (10-Q).” SEC filing, November 14, 2003.

Kevin Downey, “Viewers, not $s, drive cable news networks.” Media Life Magazine, September 19, 2001.

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Editor and Publisher Yearbook, various years, 1940-2003. Web site:

Rick Edmonds, “Good Times Coming? Watch Out.” Poynter Online, December 8, 2003. Web site:

“8 Journalists laid off at struggling MSNBC.COM.” Seattle Times, October 11, 2002

Marcus Errico, “Fox News Channel goes live Monday.” E! Online, October 6, 1996.

“Even when the economy recovers, many newspapers that have gone a lean diet won’t be bulking up again.” Editor and Publisher, March 4, 2002.

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Paul Farhi, “Everybody Wins.” American Journalism Review, April 2003. Web site:

U.S. Federal Communications Commission. “Broadcast Station Totals.” Web site:

Lucinda Fleeson, “Bureau of missing bureaus.” American Journalism Review, October/November 2003. Web site:

Professor Joe Foote, Arizona State University (Tempe, Ariz.), unpublished data.

“For networks, finding younger viewers is a gray area.” Los Angeles Times, June 11, 2002.

“For the big fish, the water’s fine.” Broadcasting and Cable, December 1, 2003, pp. 34-41.

“Fox News Channel overtakes CNN in ratings for the first time.” Associated Press, January 30, 2002.

Phyllis Furman, “CNN in big ad shakeout.” The New York Daily News, June 25, 2003.

Phyllis Furman, “CNN sacks big names.” The New York Daily News, January 3, 2003.

Future of Music Coalition, “Radio Deregulation: Has It Served Citizens and Musicians? A Report on the Effects of Radio Ownership Consolidation.” Published November 18, 2002. Web site:

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Dominic Gates, “Dubious Accounting?” Online Journalism Review, July 10, 2002. Web site:

Verne Gay, “High stakes in the war for cable news supremacy.” Cable World, March 24, 2003.

Michael Getler, “Department of Continuous News.” Washington Post, July 31, 2003, p. B6.

Melinda Gipson, “Playing the Game to Win.” Presstime, July/August 2002. Web site:

Mark Glaser, “Best Coverage of the US Elections.” Online Journalism Review, December 11, 2003. Web site:

Mark Glaser, “ trying to win as tortoise in online news race.” Online Journalism Review, August 12, 2003. Web site:

Mark Glaser, “Journal Takes Broader View of Circulation with Online Inclusion.” Online Journalism Review, November 11, 2003. Web site:

Thomas C. Greene, “Clear Channelization of America to commence Monday.” The Register (U.K.), May 29, 2003.

Marc Gunther, “The transformation of network news.” Nieman Reports, Summer 1999, pp. 20-32. Web site:

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Hall’s Reports, unpublished data. Web site:

Jesse Hamlin, “NBC declares victory in war’s TV ratings battle.” San Francisco Chronicle, March 22, 2003, p. W2.

“The Harris Case: What Next for Newspapers?” Poynter Online, April 11, 2001. Web site:

Kal Hassan, “WLS-TV’s tapeless news upgrade.” Broadcast Engineering, April 1, 2003. Web site:

John Heilemann, “The digital TV giveaway.”, April 25, 1997.

Kelly Heyboer, “Cable clash.” American Journalism Review, June 2000. Web site:

John M. Higgins, “Big four look small in the margin column.” Broadcasting & Cable, June 30, 2003.

“Hispanic Television Network Wins Case.” Philadelphia Business Journal, March 25, 2002.

The Hispanic Yearbook, 2003 edition. Web site:

Richard Huff, “Even minus Brown, CNN led cable ratings Sat.” The New York Daily News, February 5, 2003.

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Insite Research. “Television Audience Survey: Local Television News.” Published October, 1999. Web site:

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Jack Myers Report, “Advertising Expenditures History and Forecast, 1998-2006.” Web site:

Peter Johnson, “Fox wakes up morning TV.” USA Today, August 17, 2003.

Marya Jones, “Does quality cost?” Columbia Journalism Review, January/February 1999. Web site:

Sabrina Jones, “Hispanics Surpass Blacks As Growth Market for Ads.” The Washington Post, Jan. 5, 2004, p. E 01.

Jupiter Research, “The At-Work Audience: Programming for the Office.” Published 2003. Web site:

Jupiter Research, “Individual Consumer Survey.” Published June 2003.

Jupiter Research “Jupiter Consumer Survey Report: Technology in the Home.” Published 2003.

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Kagan World Media, unpublished data. Web site:

Marvin Kalb. Interview.

Matt Kempner, “Timing flawed on AOL spinoffs.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, May 26, 2002.

Kathy Kiely, “Freewheeling ‘bloggers’ are rewriting rules of journalism.” USA Today, December 30, 2003, p. 1A.

Brad King, “If DTV’s busted, so is the budget.”, August 6, 2002.

Rich Kirchen, “Local news is getting up pretty early in the morning.” The Business Journal of Milwaukee, August 2, 1999.

Kirk Whisler/WPR (Carlsbad, Ca.), unpublished data.

Phil Kloer, “Slow news period causes CNN’s ratings to drop.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, June 29, 2000.

Howard Kurtz, “AOL Version 2004: You’ve Got News.” Washington Post, December 22, 2003.

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La Opinion. “Circulation Information.” Fact sheet, 2003. Web site:

John Lafayette, “What does Microsoft really think of the MSNBC venture?” Cable World, October 7, 2002, p. 13.

“Laurence A. Tisch, Investor Known for Saving CBS Inc. from Takeover, Dies at 80.” The New York Times, November 16, 2003.

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Mediamark Research. “Magazine Audience Estimates,” 1995 through 2003. Web site:

Magazine Publishers Association. “Financial Review of Consumer Magazines 2001.” Web site:

Magazine Publishers Association. “Publisher’s Information Bureau statements,” 1980 through 2002. Web site:

MagnaGlobal USA. “Media insights: Daypart briefings.” Published December 12, 2003. Authors: Lisa Quan and Stephanie Spady. Web site:

“Market has yet to meet demand.” Electronic Media, November 25, 2002

“Mergers and Acquisitions.” Encyclopedia of Television. Web site:

Diane Mermigas, “Hearst-Argyle aims for new biz opps.” TV Week, September 15, 2003.

Merrill Lynch, “Newspaper Industry Primer, 7th Edition.” Author: Lauren Rich Fine. Published July 9, 2003. Web site:

Lawrie Mifflin, “Big 3 networks forced to revise news-gathering methods.” The New York Times, October 12, 1998.

Dave Morgan, “News Web Sites: A Future Waiting to Happen.” Editor and Publisher, December 18, 2003

“Morning news wars.” The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer. PBS, October 29, 1999. Web site:

“Morning television programs.” Encyclopedia of Television. Web site:

Morton Research (Silver Spring, Md.). “Newspaper Segment Data.”

Lucia Moses, “Help Wanting.”, December 8, 2003.

“ tightens purse strings.” Reuters, December 3, 2001

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Professor Philip Napoli, Fordham University (Bronx, N.Y.), unpublished data.

National Association of Broadcasters. “Radio News Survey.” Published Dec. 30, 2002.

National Association of Broadcasters/Zogby International Survey. “Americans Love Their Radio.” Published Oct. 6, 2003.

National Newspaper Publisher Association. “Advertising on the Network.” Web site:

National Newspaper Publisher Association. “NNPA Media Services.” Web site:

“NBC announces layoffs at” Marketplace. Minnesota Public Radio, December 4, 2001.

NBC. “NBC overview.” Presentation by Randy Falco, September 19, 2003. Web site:

NBC. “NBC update.” Presentation by Bob Wright, August 1, 2003. Web site: nbc_update_bofa_080103.pdf

New California Media/Bendixen & Associates. “Post-9/11 Public Opinion Research Survey.” Published July/August 2002.

New York Times Co. “SEC 10-K Filing.” SEC filing, February 24, 2003.

New York Times Co. “SEC Quarterly Report.” SEC filing, November 5, 2003.

News Corp., “Testimony of Rupert Murdoch before the Committee on the Judiciary.” Testimony, May 8, 2003.

News Media Yellow Book, Autumn 2003. New York: Leadership Directories, 2003.

NewsLab. “Bringing viewers back to local TV: What could reverse the ratings slide?” Authors: Deborah Potter and Walter Gantz. Web site:

“Newsmagazines woo viewers as must-see TV drama.” Christian Science Monitor, February 20, 1998.

Newsweek, staff box, July 14, 2003.

Newsweek, staff box, October 3, 1983.

Newspaper Association of America. “Quarterly Newspaper Advertising Expenditures.” Web site:

Nielsen Media Research, unpublished data. Web site:

Nielsen Media Research. “Hispanic Weekly Television Usage: Primetime.” Web site:

Nielsen//NetRatings. “American Web Surfers Boost Traffic to Foreign News Sites in March,” press release, April 24, 2003.

Nielsen//NetRatings. “Round-the-Clock News Coverage of the War in Iraq Draws Surfers Online,” press release, March 27, 2003.

Nielsen//NetRatings, “Top 20 News and Current Events Sites” data, Editor and Publisher Online. “Surround Sessions.” Online presentation, 2002. Web site:

“’s Paid News Tracker Service Surpasses 20,000 Subscribers.” Business Wire, August 7, 2003.

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Stefanie Olsen, “Ballmer: Would not launch MSNBC again.” CNET News, June 7, 2001.

“On the road to irrelevance.” Columbia Journalism Review, Nov./Dec. 2002. Web site:

Online News Association. “Digital Journalism Credibility Study.” Published 2002. Web site:

Online Publishers Association. “At Work Internet Audience Media Consumption Study.” Published May 2003.

Online Publishers Association. “Quality Online Content Providers Show Substantial Third Quarter and Year-to-Date Ad Revenue Growth.” Press release, November 20, 2003.

Kathleen O’Steen, “Tech wizardry controls network.” TV Week, September 22, 2003.

Steve Outing, “News is Really Continuous at”, January 14, 2004.

Steve Outing, “Stop the Presses!” Editor and Publisher, January 27, 2003.

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Paramount Market Publishing. “Marketing to Latinos: A Guide to the In-Culture Approach.”

James Peltz, “G.E. Would Gain Risk With Assets.” Los Angeles Times, September 3, 2003, page C 1.

Perseus Development Corporation. “The Blogging Iceberg: Of 4.12 Million Hosted Weblogs, Most Little Seen, Quickly Abandoned.” White paper, 2003. Web site:

Pew Internet and American Life Project, tracking surveys. Web site:

Pew Internet and American Life Project. “The Internet and the Iraq War.” Published April 1, 2003. Web site:

Pew Internet and American Life Project. “Counting on the Internet.” Published December 29, 2002. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “2002 Believability Survey.” Survey conducted May 8-16, 2002. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “America’s Place in the World, III.” Survey conducted August 21-Sept. 5, 2001. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Internet Sapping Broadcast News Audience.” Published June 11, 2000. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “January 2003 News Interest Index.” Survey conducted January 8-12, 2003. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Late March 2003 War Tracking Poll.” Survey conducted March 20-27, 2003. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Media Attitudes, Youth Engagement, Religion After 9/11.” Survey conducted November 13-19, 2001. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “News media’s improved image proves short lived.” Published August 4, 2002. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “October 2003 News Interest Index.” Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “President’s Criticism of Media Resonates, But Iraq Unease Grows.” Published October 21, 2003. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Public’s News Habits Little Changed by September 11.” Published June 9, 2002. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Strong Opposition to Media Cross-Ownership Emerges.” Published July 13, 2003. Web site:

Pew Research Center for the People and the Press. “Unusually High Interest In Bush’s State Of The Union.” Published January 17, 2002. Web site:

Deborah Potter, “Pessimism rules in TV newsrooms.” Columbia Journalism Review, November/December 2002. Web site:

Project for Excellence in Journalism, “Changing Definitions of News,” March 6, 1998. Web site:

Project for Excellence in Journalism. “ePolitics: A study of the 2000 Presidential Campaign on the Internet.” Published April 10, 2000. Web site:

Project for Excellence in Journalism. “Before and After: How the War on Terrorism Has Changed the News Agenda.” Published November 19, 2001. Web site:

Project for Excellence in Journalism. “Local TV News Project.” Web site:

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Readership Institute. “Characteristics of Subscribers, Single-Copy Buyers and Passalongs.” Published January 2003. Web site:

Readership Institute. “U.S. Daily Readership during the War with Iraq.” Published May 2003. Web site:

Richard K. Miller and Associates. The 2002 Entertainment, Media and Advertising Handbook.

David Riffe, S. Lacy, & F. Fico. Analyzing media messages using quantitative content analysis in research. Mahwah, New Jersey: Laurence Erlbaum, 1988

J. Max Robins, “Wins of War.” TV Guide, April 7, 2003.

“Roger’s balancing act.” Broadcasting & Cable, October 27, 2003.

Allison Romano, “Wish you were younger? So do many cable nets.” Broadcasting & Cable, August 25, 2003.

Tom Rosenstiel and Bill Kovach, “Why We Need ‘Nightline’.” The Washington Post, March 6, 2002, A19

Radio-Television News Directors Association (RTNDA). “RTNDA/Ball State University Annual Survey,” 1997 through 2003. Web site:

Radio-Television News Directors Foundation (RTNDF). “2003 Local Television News Study of News Directors and the American Public.” Web site:

Radio-Television News Directors Foundation. “The American Radio News Audience Survey.” Published 2000. Web site:

John Russial, “Pagination in the Newsroom: A Question of Time.” Newspaper Research Journal, Winter 1994, p. 91-101.

Jim Rutenberg, “Suffering News Burnout? Rest of America Is, Too.” New York Times, August 11, 2003.

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Scarborough Research, unpublished data. Web site:

Brad Schultz, “Digital TV conversion still mired in uncertainty.” RTNDA Communicator, April 2003.

Vivek Shankar, “Reporters, readers get new ways to publish and read.” Online News Association, November 15, 2003.

Michael Starr, “Two new Fox channels,” The New York Post, October 2, 2003.

Carl Sullivan, “More Publishers Try All-Paid Web Model,” Editor and Publisher, January 23, 2003.

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Time, staff box, April 28, 2003.

Time, staff box, October 3, 1983.

TNS Media Intelligence/CMR, unpublished data. Web site:

“Too Little Too Late,” The Economist, May 17, 2003.

Andrew Tyndall, ADT Research (New York, N.Y.), unpublished data. Web site:

“Tyndall Report,” February 22, 2003. Web site:

“Tyndall Report,” March 1, 2003. Web site:

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U.S. Bureau of the Census.

U.S. Bureau of the Census. “Race and Hispanic Origin 1790 to 1990.” Web site:

U.S. Bureau of the Census. “Twenty Languages Most Frequently Spoken at Home by English Ability for the Population 5 Years and Over: 1990 and 2000.” Web site:

U.S. Bureau of the Census: “Race and Hispanic or Latino: 2000.” Web site:

U.S. Bureau of the Census. “A Nation on the Move.” Published 2003.

U.S. Bureau of Transportation Statistics.

U.S. Federal Highway Administration. “Journey to Work Trends in the United States and Its Major Metropolitan Areas, 1960-1990.” Published November 1993. Web site:!.pdf.

U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO). “Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition.” GAO Reports, November 8, 2002. Web site:

UCLA Center for Communication Policy. ”The UCLA Internet Report – Surveying the Digital Future.” Published January 2003.

Univision. “Nielsen 2003 Universe Estimates.”

Lou Ureneck, “Newspapers arrive at economic crossroads.” Nieman Reports, Summer 1999, pp. 3-19. Web site:

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Veronis Suhler Stevenson. “Communications Industry Forecast.” Published July 2002.

“Viacom, CBS merger gets OK.” USA Today, May 4, 2000.

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Elizabeth Weinreb, “The News About News Magazines,” unpublished essay.

Erik Wemple, “Web Spinning.” Washington Citypaper, July 4, 2003.

Daisy Whitney, “Centralcasting on the move.” Electronic Media, January 27, 2003.

Caroline Wilbert, “Fox fattens lead on CNN in peak year for cable news.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, January 6, 2004.

Caroline Wilbert, “Saddam drama helps CNN, but Fox News carries day.” Atlanta Journal-Constitution, December 17, 2003.

David Wilkerson, “Broadband, digital boost cable in Q3.”, November 19, 2003.

Nick Wingfield, “Internet 2.0: E-tailing Comes of Age.” Wall Street Journal, December 8, 2003.

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Tom Yellin. Interview, February 2004.